Saturday, January 25, 2020

Effects of GABA on Anxiety Disorder

Effects of GABA on Anxiety Disorder Keywords: Anxiety, Moringa pudding, HIV/AIDS, GABA.   Indonesias first case of HIV was reported in 1987 and between then and 2009, 3,492 people died from the disease (Fred, 2012). Of the 11,856 cases reported in 2008, 6,962 of them were people under 30 years of age, including 55 infants under 1 year old (Seligson and Peterson, 2010). There are a high number of concentrated cases among Indonesias most at risk including injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers their partners and clients, homosexual men and infants who contract the disease through the womb or from being breast fed (Chris, 2012). In the last 15 years, HIV/AIDS has become an epidemic in Indonesia. The highest concentration areas are Papua, Jakarta, East Java, West Java, Bali and Riau and all are considered to be zones that need immediate attention. Due to the increasing number of IDUs, the number of new infections has grown rapidly since 1999. Moreover, a generalised epidemic is already under way in the provinces of Papua and West Papua, where a population based survey found an adult-prevalence rate of 2.4% in 2006 (Broman, 2009). A whopping 48% of Papuans are unaware of HIV/AIDS, and the number of AIDS cases per 100,000 people in the two provinces is almost 20 times the national average. The percentage of people who reported being unaware of HIV/AIDS increases to 74% among uneducated populations in the region (Braet et al., 2007). (The epidemic in Indonesia is one of the fastest growing among HIV/AIDS in Asia. The epidemic of injecting drug use continues to be the primary mode of transmission, accounting for 59% of HIV infections, and heterosexual transmission accounted for 41% in 2006. According to the Indonesian Ministry of Health, recent surveys report that more than 40% of IDUs in Jakarta have tested positive for HIV, and about 13% tested positive in West Java. Many IDUs sell sex to finance their drug habits. Yet in 2005, 25% of IDUs in Bandung, Jakarta, and Medan said they had unprotected paid sex in the last 12 months (Baxter, 2010). The Indonesian archipelago stretches more than 3,000 miles along the Equator. Cultural practices and levels of urbanization have an impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (Fredrickson et al., 2008). For instance, a culture of paid and transactional sex among young men and women aged 15 to 24 has been a driving factor in Papua. Among 15 to 24 year olds, HIV-prevalence rates were 3% in 2006, according to the Ministry of Health (Hunter and . Prevalence rates among sex workers in East Javas major urban areas ranged from 9% in Surabaya to 16% in Malang and Probolinggo in 2004 (Haruddin, 2012). Numerous factors put Indonesia in danger of a broader epidemic. Risky sexual behaviors are common. Only 54.7% of sex workers and 56.5% of men who have sex with men (MSM) use condoms consistently, and just 18.5 percent of IDUs consistently use both sterile needles and condoms, according to Indonesias 2006 report to the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS). Many IDUs are also sex workers or clients of sex workers, increasing the likelihood of HIV/AIDS spreading to the general population. Awareness of HIV status among at-risk populations is low. According to a 2004-2005 study cited in the UNGASS report, 18.1% of IDUs, 15.4% of MSM, 14.8% of sex workers, and 3.3% of clients of sex workers had received HIV testing in the previous 12 months and knew their test results (Hoshi et al., 2007). Stigma and discrimination persist and many people living with HIV hide their status for fear of losing their jobs, social status, and the support of their families and communities, thus decreasing the likelihood that they will receive proper treatment and increasing the chances of HIV spreading undetected. Feelings of anxiety are a normal, healthy response to the diagnosis, onset, or progression of HIV infection (Daniel et al., 2009). But its important to recognize the difference between this type of anxiety and the sort that signals a clinical disorder. HIV itself does not cause anxiety disorders, but HIV+ people tend to experience more anxiety than the general population. Certain medications used to treat HIV can also cause anxiety symptoms. Fortunately, anxiety disorders are among the most treatable of psychiatric conditions, and respond well to pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment (Phillipe and Cella, 2009). Among HIV/AIDS-infected patients receiving medical care, 20.3% have been found to have an anxiety disorder, with 12.3% meeting the criteria for panic disorder, 10.4% for PTSD, and 2.8% having generalized anxiety disorder (Nevid, 2012). People living with HIV can experience symptoms of anxiety across the spectrum of anxiety disorders. Adjustment disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder that manifests as anxiety, and is common after receiving an HIV diagnosis (Gropen et al., 2011). The other major types of anxiety disorder are panic disorder and agoraphobia, social phobia and other phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), acute stress disorder and anxiety disorder due to a general medical condition (McDowell and Newell, 1999). HIV+ people experience some anxiety disorders, such as OCD, no more frequently than those who do not have the virus (Post and White, 2004). But the experience of having HIV can prompt or exacerbate other disorders, such as PTSD, especially when someone has an underlying risk for them. Anxiety can present in a variety of ways, including shortness of breath, chest pain, racing heart, dizziness, numbness or tingling, nausea or the sensation of choking. When there are no underlying medical explanations for these symptoms, clinicians are advised to consider an anxiety disorder as the cause (Ruggert and Warner, 2001). Anxiety disorders can seem to flare up at key moments in the experience of HIV disease, such as at the time of initial HIV diagnosis, diagnosis with an opportunistic infection, a declining CD4 count or a blip in viral load, or any other reminder of ongoing HIV infection. Its helpful to recognize that these experiences may trigger anxiety, even symptoms of panic disorder and depression, for an HIV+ person. Besides the discomfort of anxiety disorders, they can interfere in an HIV+ persons overall success in managing HIV because they are a major cause of nonadherence to medication (Post and White, 2004). There is a main question What are appropriate treatments for an HIV+ person suffering from an anxiety disorder. Anxiety is portrayed as a frame of mind concerned about future in association with preparation for possible, upcoming undesirable happenings. The present treatment for the disorder is having a lot of side-effects. An agent with good therapeutic effect and less side-effects is needed for the treatment of anxiety. State Hospital of Waluyo Jati has found an innovation through Nutri Moringa Pudding on decreasing of anxiety level in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. To investigate the Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) extract of Moringa oleifera Pudding in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. It showed by statistic result by paired sample t-test (SPSS) t. 0.0008, it means P The research subject is determined by the purposive sampling and it was conducted on HIV/AIDS patient. A pretest with the anxieties scale (Nevid, 2012) followed by first group (n=50), then selected a sample that has the highest anxiety score (n=30) and they will be the subjects and treated by Nutri Moringa Pudding for a week. Post-test be held a week after treated. Fixed schedule of moringa pudding consumption be done 3 times a day.       nonR 01 à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚  (x) à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚  02 The Anxiety Scale by Nevid input form consists of 30 vignette like questions designed to rate 3 aspects such as emotional, cognitive, and physiologic of subjects in terms of severity and role in the core character. The questions are clustered in matrix format across three core character types, namely Types A, B, and C. By referencing the strength of scores related to their type domain characteristics, the likely triggers and expressions of maladaptive behavior is identified, which can be applied to a variety of settings and objectives. The matrix structure and associated characteristics are illustrated in Diagram 1 below. Tabel-1. Anxiety Scale Item Scale Favorable Unfavorable DISCUSSION There Anxiety disorders are a serious concern for HIV+ people who dont have good coping strategies and a strong social support network, such as family, friends, or a faith community. Individuals with a history of abuse physical, sexual, emotional are more likely to have an anxiety disorder (Daniels, 2010) People who have unresolved grief, whatever the source, should be screened for anxiety. Those with a personal or family history of anxiety disorders also are at higher risk for developing them. A person with HIV who appears to have symptoms of an anxiety disorder should be given a thorough medical evaluation that includes taking a history of anxiety symptoms to determine onset, frequency, and severity/ anxiety scale (Strongman, 2012). The interviewing clinician should ask about stressful life events, family history, drug and alcohol use (past and present), and any medications the patient is taking (Lee, 2008). Kennedy et al. (2010) explainded that a complete diagnostic evaluation includes testing thyroid, liver, and kidney function, and evaluating for other psychiatric disorders associated with comorbid anxiety (e.g., depression). Certain neuropsychiatric disorders that are common in people with advanced HIV disease (AIDS) must be ruled out before diagnosing anxiety, particularly HIV-associated dementia which can include anxiety. Delirium also commonly features anxiety and agitation. Its especially important to treat the delirium and avoid using anti anxiety medications, which can have serious adverse affects (Jocham and Ullsperger, 2009). A host of general medical conditions are associated with anxiety and must also be ruled out during the diagnostic process. These include fever, dehydration and metabolic complications, CNS opportunistic infections, neurosyphilis, respiratory conditions, endocrinopathies (problems with the endocrine system), cardiovascular disease, and hyperventilation syndrome. A number of HIV-related medications can cause anxiety as a side effect, especially at first. These include acyclovir, antiretrovirals (e.g., efavirenz), corticosteroids, isoniazid, interferons, interleukin-2, and pentamindine. Anxiety is also a side effect of a variety of medications used for other psychiatric complaints (e.g. depression, delirium). In both cases, the anxiety-producing medication should be replaced. If this isnt possible, the anxiety should be treated, preferably with nonpharmacological methods. Cause the medicine has many side effect to their body. There are three different methods used to successfully treat anxiety disorders: pharmacological, nonpharmacological, or a combination of the two. Each patients experience of an anxiety disorder is unique and must be treated as such. Although many anti-anxiety medications are effective, there are also a number of good nonpharmacological treatments to choose from. When someone suffering from anxiety disorder is already taking a variety of medications, or there is concern about potential complications or interactions between medications, it may be preferable to pursue a nonpharmacological approach (Topà §uoÄÅ ¸lu et al., 2009) Medications used to treat anxiety disorders include SSRIs; benzodiazepines, the most commonly used but potentially causing withdrawal symptoms when stopped; venlafaxine; and buspirone. Other anti-anxiety agents that can be effective include antihistamines, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants. Its important to consider drug-drug interactions and potential side effects if the treating physician chooses to treat anxiety with one of these medications. Nonpharmacological treatments of HIV-related anxiety include treated by Nutri Moringa Pudding it does not has side effect. Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a food plant withmultiple medical uses, distributed in many countries of the tropicsand subtropics. It has an impressive range of medical uses with high nutritional value. M. oleifera has antibacterial activity and are reported to be rich in antimicrobial agents (Parrota, 2010). These are reported to contain an active antibiotic principle, pterygospermin, which has powerful antibacterial and fungicidal effects to prevent a pain hormonal such as cortisol and sitokinin. These are to be responsible of anxiety if it is in abnormal condition (Lizzy, 2011). In Nutri Moringa Pudding, a similar compound is found to be responsible for the antibacterial effects and it will result GABA, dopamine in body. The possesses antimicrobial activity attributed to the presence of 4-ÃŽÂ ±-L-rhamnosyloxy benzyl isothiocyanate. The aglycone of deoxyniazimicine isolated from the chloroform fraction of an ethanol was found to be responsible for the antibacterial and antifu ngal activities to prevent of pain hormonal secretion, then produce GABA, dopamine, and encephaline. Nutri Moringa Pudding has been shown to possess antifungal activity that showed antibacterial effect against pathogen bacteria in digestivus system. It was found to inhibitthe growth of microorganisms. Different nutritionts of this pudding contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, GABA, vitamins, ÃŽÂ ² -carotene, amino acids and various phenolics (Toefilo, 2003). Indonesia has used Moringa oleifera modification such as Nutri Moringa Pudding cause it is plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, ÃŽÂ ² sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol such as Walujo Jati hospital in Kraksaan, Probolinggo, East Java Indonesia used it since 2012 to overcome anxiety, malprotein nutrition, diabetes, and cancer. In addition to its compelling high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal values. Picture-2. Nutri Moringa Pudding ImplicationPicture-1.GABA-ergic Selected samples were 30 subjects treated by Nutri Moringa Pudding showed the reduction of HIV/AIDS-infected patients with 10 mg/kg GABA-ergic in Moringa Pudding. The result of the post-test by Paired Sample t- test analysis (SPSS 19) with a value oft= 0.008 or P Tabel-2. Hypotetic Resume Pre-post result Z -2.549a Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .008 Based on positive ranks. Paired samle t- Test 10mg GABA in Nutri Moringa Pudding to overcome anxiety disorder. GABA (gamma- aminobutyric acid) is an amino acid. It is the main inhibitory (calming) neurotransmitter in the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers between neurons (nerve cells). The body make GABA from glutamine a vital amino acid in the brain (Parrota, 2010). Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. GABA is a natural calming and anti-epileptic and anti anxiety agent . It is vital for proper brain functioning. GABA also helps bodies make endorphins chemicals that make them feel happy. Lizzy (2011) said GABA influences our mood because it reduces high levels of the hormones adrenalin, noradrenalin and dopamine, and it affects the neurotransmitter serotonin. Having enough GABA in the brain is linked to being relaxed and happy. Having too little GABA is linked to the feeeling anxious, sleeping problem insomnia, stressed, tense and depressed. when people are nervous or anxious their brains produce more beta brain waves than alpha brain waves. Taking GABA increases the amount of alpha waves. Alpha waves are linked to clear thinking, good focus and being in the zone or the flow. In these mind states, in which people are focused, calm and productive, they have high amounts of alpha brain wave activity, finally it can increase CD4 of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. This scientific paper has showed the effect of Nutri Moringa Pudding on decreasing of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The research showed that the GABA, dopamine, and encephaline in Nutri Moringa Pudding may have produced by multiple mechanisms. It was 20-200mg/kg of the GABA in pudding extract, it appeared that supplementation was able to cause a reduction of anxiety in HIV/AIDS-infected patients Pharmachology intervention has many side effect that it can be danger for human. Nutri Moringa Pudding show the innovative of anxiety disorder and it saved for everyone who consumed it. Promotion Nutri Moringa Pudding must be done by physician, nutritionist, health practice, psychologist, consultant, etc. the value added that Nutri Moringa Consumption showed a good result for PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition) cases, cause it has double protein from eggs. The authors are thankful to Her Royal Highness Princess Tantriana Sari Hasan Aminuddin as a Probolinggo Regence for support her delegation in International; also Dr. Anang Budi Yoelijanto (MD) as a Director of Waluyo Jati State Hospital for research funding and international publication; Nutritionist Team (Instalasi Gizi) Waluyo Jati State Hospital for providing the necessary for the preparation of the research; Dr. Mirrah Samiyah (MD), Namira School, and Dr. Frizka Eliza (MD) for preparing the previous research; Daily Newspaper Kedaulatan Rakyat Yogyakarta, Indonesia for National Publication our research; Dr. Alimatus Sahrah, Dr. Ir. Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Mrs. Reny Yuniasanti, Mr. Awan Santosa at Mercu Buana University of Yogyakarta for supporting of academic material research; Mrs. Rumaniyah, Prof. Dr. Sukarti Moeljopawiro at Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta Indonesia for programming the simulations; Ms. Ayu Deni Pramita for being our research volunteer; Academic Lecturers at Colle ge and Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand for helping with providing the journal; and our wishes to thank Prof. Dr. L. T. Handoko as a Deputy Chairman for Engineering Sciences Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) for helping with writing the article. References Baxter, 2010. The quality of life in Tazmanian on HIV medicine. Massachusetts: MIT, Inc., 9: 132-133. Braet, C., L. Claus, S. Verbeken and L.V. Vlierberghe, 2007. Impulsivity in overweight children. European Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 16(8): 473-483. DOI 10.1007/s00787-007-0623-2. Broman, C., 2009. The longitudinal impact of adolescent drug use on socioeconomic outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Child Adolescent Substance Abuse, 18(2): 131-143. [Accessed ERIC Database]. Chris, D., 2012. HIV/AIDS growing and the death of human. United State of America: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 7: 67-69. Daniel, J., M. Hickman, J. Macleod, N. Wiles, A. Lingford Hughes and M. Farrell, 2009. Is socioeconomic status in early life associated with drug use? A systematic review of the evidence. Drug Alcohol Review, 28(2): 142-153. DOI 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2008.00042.x. Daniels, M., 2010. Gallup: Conservatives outnumber liberals 2:1, church attendance rising. Secular News Daily. Available from http:// outnumber-liberals-21-church-attendance-rising/ [Accessed August 15, 2010]. Fred, B., 2012. Psikologi Kedokteran dan Kesehatan. Jakarta: PT. Grasindo, 14: 43-45. Fredrickson, R., P.J. Snyder, J. Cromer, E. Thomas, M. Lewis and P. Maruff, 2008. The use of effect sizes to characterize the nature of cognitive change in psychopharmacological studies: An example with scopolamine. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical Experimental, 23(5): 425-436. DOI 10.1002/ hup.942. Gropen, R., N. Clark Chiarelli, C. Hoisington and S. Ehrlich, 2011. The importance of executive function in earlyscience education. Available from[Accessed September 30, 2011]. Haruddin, A., 2012. Studi pelaksanaan HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada, 1: 91-92. Hoshi, R., K. Mullins, C. Boundy, C. Brignell, P. Piccini and H. Curran, 2007. Neurocognitive function in current and exusers of ecstasy in comparison to both matched polydrug using controls and drugnaÃÆ' ¯ve controls. Psychopharmacology, 194(3): 371-379. DOI 10.1007/ s00213-007-0837-5. Jocham, W. and M. Ullsperger, 2009. Neuropharmacology of performance monitoring. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(1): 48-60. DOI 10.1016/ j.neubiorev.2008.08.011. Kennedy, W.O., R. Veasey, A. Watson, F. Dodd, E. Jones, S. Maggini and C.F. Haskell, 2010. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology, 211(1): 55-68. DOI 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3. Lee, K., 2008. A coverage prevention of HIV/AIDS. Malaysia: Health Ministry, Inc, 1: 22-25. Lizzy, 2011. Chemotherapy of bacterial infections. Part 4: Potential anticholera agents. European J. Exper. Biol, 6(3): 168-169. McDowell and Newell, 1999. WHO on developing og the quality of life: A review of public policy. International Conference on Public Health. New York: Massachusetts Institute Technology, Inc. Nevid, S., 2012. Kecemasan bagaimana mengatasi penyebabnya. Jakarta :Pustaka Populer Obor, 1: 56. Parrota, J.A., 2010. Healing plants of Peninsular India. Wallingford, UK and New York, NY, USA: CABI Publishing. Phillipe and Cella, 2009. Related health on improving of quality of life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 5: 88. Post and White, 2004. Public health on influencing the quality of life. USA: Springer, Inc. 2: 91. Ruggert and Warner, 2001. The quality of life on HIV medicine. United State of America: Missouri Corp, 8: 110. Seligson and Peterson, 2010. AIDS prevention and treatment: Hope, humor, and healing. New York: Hemisphere Pub, 114. Strongman, K., 2012. The psychiatric of emotion fifth edition from everyday life to theory. New Zealand : Departement of Psychology, University of Canterbury, 2: 201-203. Toefilo, S., 2003. Health plants for human well-being. Minnesota: Minnesota University, Inc, 2: 61-62. Topà §uoÄÅ ¸lu, N.V., O. Fistikci, O. Ekinci, G.A. Gimzal and A.B. Cà ¶mert, 2009. Assessment of executive functions in social phobia patients using the wisconsin card sorting test. Tà ¼rk Psikiyatri Dergisi = Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 20(4): 322-331. [Accessed EBSCOhost]. Appendix Picture-3. Nutri Moringa Pudding SachetPicture-4. Nutri Moringa Pudding      Ã‚  

Friday, January 17, 2020

Marxism and Education Essay

The Marxist perspective of education in society can be very questionable because Marxist theorists such as; Louis Althusser, Bowles and Gintis, David Reynolds and Willis all seem to disagree with one another. The first thing I will write about are the strengths. The strengths about the Marxist view are it points out how ideology is transmitted within school via the hidden curriculum, how education legitimises class inequality, it points out the inequalities of both opportunity and outcome on the system and it exposes the myth of meritocracy. From these points I can tell that it tries to believe that teachers are a kind of agent who are trying to wrong the children. Louis Althusser believed that education is an ideological apparatus designed to control children by brainwashing them. Applying this idea allows the hidden curriculum to transmit values which are not intentionally designed to happen. With class inequality it shows that schools are planting a job title on children which will link to their background. For example, a kid from the working class may get a job working at a car manufactures, while a kid from upper class may get a job as a lawyer. But, this really exposes the idea of meritocracy where if you do well at school you will get a good job as a reward. Now, I will write about the weaknesses. The weaknesses are that many working class children do succeed in the education system. It overemphasises class and ignores other structural inequalities: ethnicity and gender, post-modernists would argue that education reproduces diversity not inequality and Marxists can’t seem to agree with each other at all. From these points I can tell that Marxists believe that working class children are a lot less smarter than upper class people but actually this isn’t true because you don’t need to be a higher class to be smarter than anyone else it takes the person to be determined to do it themselves. Also, the teacher could show a lot more favouritism to a specific gender in the class like girls or just as easily be based on the colour of their skin. So, you could be the smartest person in the class but you may be a black girl and I may not pick on you. Post-modernists on the other hand also argue that education reproduces diversity meaning people may not be picked on because of their disability etc. Finally, my last point is that none of the Marxist theorists can’t agree with each other because each theorist believes that their theory is correct and go out trying to criticise everyone else. For example, Bowles and Gintis were criticised by Willis stating that their research wasn’t in depth enough but he could easily be criticised for only researching 12 boys.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Acute Care Nursing Essay - 2095 Words

The aim of this assignment is to critically discuss the nursing assessment individualised care and nursing interventions of the acutely ill patient. The patient discussed developed severe sepsis due to a urinary tract infection and her condition deteriorated during the recovery process in the nurse’s care. Lovick (2009) defines sepsis ‘as a known or suspected infection accompanied by evidence of two or more of the SIRS criteria’. SIRS is outlined as a ‘systemic inflammatory response’ consisting of two or more of the following symptoms ‘temperature 38 degrees Celsius or 90 beats per minute, respiratory rates greater than 20 breaths per minute and white blood count higher than 12,000 cells per microliter or lower than 4000 cells per†¦show more content†¦The nurse found Mrs Smith to be tachypnoeic, her respirations were recorded as 24 breaths per minute it was observed as being fast and it appeared that her accessory muscles were being use d. Mrs Smith’s pallor also appeared flushed and her saturations were documented as 93%. The nurse used the stethoscope to check for wheeze the patient’s lungs were clear and chest rise was symmetrical. Mrs Smith was commenced on 100% oxygen through a non-rebreathe mask, oxygen as an intervention is necessary as Creed Spiers (2010) highlight ‘metabolic demand for oxygen throughout the body is hugely increased by sepsis and is essential to ensure the supply of oxygen is maximized’ .The nurse monitored the patient closely because in her confused state the patient may try to remove the oxygen mask. An evaluation of Mrs Smith circulation was the next step carried out by the nurse, as in the breathing assessment Mrs Smith pallor was noted as being flushed and the patient appeared confused this could be associated with poor cardiac output. The nurse recorded the patient’s blood pressure using a dinamap it was measured at 88/50, it was then rechecked manually to ensure accuracy. 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Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Dissertation on Teamwork and Customer Service Quality

THE IMPACT OF TEAM WORK ON CUSTOMER SERVICE QUALITY A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE, UGANDA DRONYI SILVER WANI 08/U/6906/PLE/PE A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF PROCUREMENT AND LOGISTICS OF KYAMBOGO UNIVERSITY APRIL 2012 CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter includes the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, and scope of the study, significance of the study, limitations of the study and operational definition of terms. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Phil (2002) team working is a†¦show more content†¦Enyutu (2005) stated that available test results from a wide variety of sources had demonstrated prior to the curriculum review that a majority of Ugandan children entering primary school were failing to achieve adequate literacy and numeric standards. 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