Wednesday, July 31, 2019
SAN BEDA COLLEGE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MENDIOLA, MANILA RESEARCH Methodology The Influence of Using SequentraÃ ® on the Johnson Controls Inc. Ã¢â¬â Global WorkPlace Knowledge CentreÃ¢â¬â¢s (JCI-GWK) Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services and to the Clients SUBMITTED TO: Dr. Milagros Malaya SUBMITTED BY: Mark Anthony M. Villasis DATE February 05, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Background of the Study2 II. Statement of the Problem3 III. Objectives of the Study:Ã General and Specific4 IV. Significance of the Study 4 V. Review of Related Literature5 VI. Integration of Literature Findings8 VII. Assumptions of the Study8 VIII. Operational Definition of Terms9 IX. Conceptual & Operational Framework12 X. Scope and Limitations13 XI. Hypotheses13 XII. Bibliography14 XIII. Appendices15 I. Background of the Study The business process outsourcing (BPO) invests heavily with technology and infrastructure. The Philippines to date is at par with the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best in technology. Due to their substantial investment in systems, networks, security, and software, most global BPO providers look for highly transactional, technology-intensive work such as portfolio database management, payroll, and records management to achieve the highest profit. With the global marketplace becoming increasingly competitive and the insatiable appetite for business information, the volume of data that must be managed and assimilated is growing at an exponential rate. Global corporations require standard processes, consistent data to enable global consolidation and the ability to transform raw data into business intelligence to support better decision making. In many cases, regions, countries and even cities have different finance systems, computerized maintenance management systems, purchase order processing and call centre platforms with inconsistent data capture and coding. Just to add to the complexity the data can be in different languages. To keep track of the data collected from business operations most companies use multiple systems. Retrieving and consolidating this information in a timely manner (e. g. month end reporting) can be a costly and resource intensive task. Information management centres have been forced to provide more services whilst reducing resource costs to remain competitive. In response to these business challenges, GWK is currently using SequentraÃ ®, a web-based software that allows capturing the following key areas of information in one comprehensive web-based application. Lease Administration |Transaction Management | |Rent & operating expense tracking |Project milestone tracking | |Full client chart of accounts for AP integration |Project budget tracking | |Critical lease dates & options |Performance measurement | |Key property contacts |Electronic customer satisfaction surveys | |Space allocations Ã¢â¬â internal charg e backs |Document management | |Space type allocations | | |Document management capability | | II. Statement of the Problem This study will be conducted to explain the influence of SequentraÃ ® to the Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services of JCI-JWK and to the customers. This study was intended to answer the following questions: ) What features does SequentraÃ ® offer to the Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services of JCI-JWK? 2) What benefits does SequentraÃ ® put forward to the customers? 3) Who are the existing clients of JCI-JWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services that benefited from SequentraÃ ®? III. Objectives of the Study: Main Objective: To examine the effect of using SequentraÃ ® based on operational advantage on JCI-GWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Managers and Lease Administrators, and satisfaction to the customers. Specific Objectives: 1) To find out the features of SequentraÃ ® that contributes an operation al advantage to the Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services of JCI-JWK? ) To discover the benefits that SequentraÃ ® offers to the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ businesses? 3) To determine whether the clients of JCI-JWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services are satisfied. IV. Significance of the Study With the global marketplace becoming increasingly competitive and the insatiable appetite for business information, the volume of data that must be managed and assimilated is growing at an exponential rate. Global corporations take advantage of the current technologies, and infrastructures, require standard processes, consistent data to enable global consolidation and the ability to transform raw data into business intelligence to support better decision making. This study intends to investigate the influence of using SequentraÃ ® on the JCI-GWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services and to its clients. Determining the features and benefits that SequentraÃ ® offers and find out if the clients, in turn, is satisfied. This study will also give confidence to the Information Technology (IT) practitioners to focus their initiatives on developing toolsets that provide operational advantages. V. Review of Related Literature On Web Based Applications According to an article on http://www. articlesbase. com entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Benefits of Web Based ApplicationsÃ¢â¬ , some of the core benefits of Web Based Application are the following: 1) Compatibility. Web based applications are far more compatible across platforms than traditional installed software. 2) Efficiency. The benefit of web based solution is that they not only modernizes established business practices, but also makes services and information available from any web-facilitated personal computer. 3) Highly deployable. Deploying web applications to the end users are very easy. It simply needs to send the user a website address to log into and provide them with internet access facility. 4) Security of live data. Web based applications provide an additional security by removing the need for the user to have access to the data and back end servers. 5) Cost Effective. Web based applications can considerably lower the costs because of reduced support and maintenance, lower requirements on the end user system and simplified plans. On Operational Advantage An eHow contributor wrote an article on how can the information technology (IT) change a business. According to the article, IT has brought about a revolution at the workplace since the 90s. The recent development and fast-paced adoption of Internet communication and Web-based technologies and applications has enhanced the potential of IT. IT and computer systems deployed strategically can impact the operational aspects and productivity parameters of a business. IT and attendant technologies and tools can be used to automate key business operations, functions and activities of a business. Businesses can invest in desktop computers, workstations, laptops, minicomputers, notebook computers and high-end servers for a host of organizational tasks and functions. Market-available software, computing applications, networking and other IT productivity tools installed in computers and computer systems can help professionals, workers and staff in a business to streamline work processes and execute tasks and functions faster in order to achieve organizational-defined goals and targets. Johnson Controls has developed SequentraÃ ® to enhance real estate management, lease administration, project management and reporting for improved productivity and decision making. This application was developed by real estate professionals who possess a unique knowledge of other applications offered in the marketplace, and a keen appreciation of the switching costs to move to web-based applications. As a result, SequentraÃ ® was designed to dynamically integrate with existing legacy systems and provide web-based access to certain data managed in the legacy system. This allows corporations to gain the benefits of web access without the cost and time to replace systems, retrain staff and modify processes. In addition, SequentraÃ ® adds new functionality and reporting capability not otherwise present in other legacy systems. (SequentraÃ ® Technology for the Real Estate Industry). [pic] Figure 1. Integrated Components of SequentraÃ ® On Customer Satisfaction About the virtual environment, the research that has addressed the influence of perceived quality on satisfaction is limited. Rolland (2003) studied the relationship between the perceived quality of a website and satisfaction with the site. The results shows that the perceived quality of the website influence positively satisfaction. This relationship has been demonstrated by Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003) they shown that the overall quality of service, predicts strongly satisfaction of users. The same result was also confirmed by Bressolles (2004) who studied this link in a shopping experience at two sites: a site for digital products and a travel site. The results show a strong and positive relationship between the two concepts. It follows that service quality influence positively satisfaction after a purchase from a merchant site. VI. Integration of Literature Findings Through the literature review, the researcher has shown the benefits of the web-based applications, the operational advantage of adopting the information technology (e. g. adoption of Internet communication and Web-based technologies and applications), and the influence of perceived quality of a website on satisfaction. It is therefore reasonable to consider the influences of the web-based application on the operational advantage of a service and the satisfaction of the customers. Meanwhile, technology adoption generates less human contact which might result in waste of time and effort and concern about privacy and confidentiality from the customer point of view (Bitner 2001). Meyronin (2004) has indicated that electronic intermediation tends to impoverish service relations, and human interactions might create value through advanced services, so that a balance between competitive advantage and productivity gains is necessary. VII. Assumptions of the Study The assumptions of the study are as follows: 1. The researcher will identify the SequentraÃ ® features that have been suggested as being important for Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services. 2. The researcher will also pinpoint the SequentraÃ ® benefits that are known to offer business advantages to the clients. 3. The existing clients of JCI-JWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services that have benefited from SequentraÃ ® are ranging from regional organizations to large multi-national corporations. VIII. Operational Definition of Terms Business process outsourcing (BPO) is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of specific business functions (or processes) to a third-party service provider. Typically categorized into back office outsourcing Ã¢â¬â which includes internal business functions such as human resources or finance and accounting, and front office outsourcing Ã¢â¬â which includes customer-related services such as contact center services. BPO that is contracted outside a company's country is called offshore outsourcing. BPO that is contracted to a company's neighboring (or nearby) country is called nearshore outsourcing. (Wikipedia) Given the proximity of BPO to the information technology industry, it is also categorized as an information technology enabled service or ITES. Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) and legal process outsourcing (LPO) are some of the sub-segments of business process outsourcing industry. Information technology (IT) is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications. The term in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review, in which authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that Ã¢â¬Å"the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology. Ã¢â¬ (Wikipedia) IT is the area of managing technology and spans wide variety of areas that include but are not limited to things such as processes, computer software, information systems, computer hardware, programming languages, and data constructs. In short, anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the domain space known as Information Technology (IT). (Wikipedia) Lease Administration Services. Lease Administration is the process of maintaining and utilizing pertinent information contained within the lease by either the landlord or tenant. It includes the performing of all activities that ensure lease complianceÃ¢â¬âconsisting of both monetary and non monetary obligations. It includes calculating rent increases and the other party confirming calculations already made. It includes the process by which the tenant notifies the landlord of its intent to exercise an option to renew or its intent to vacate. It also includes the process by which landlords determine additional monetary charges a tenant may be liable for. It includes determining each party's insurance requirements under the lease. In short, it includes the entire process of determining obligations under the lease and ensuring such obligations are met by the other party. Lease administration by the tenant would include providing information (critical dates, rights and responsibilities) to its managers including facilities, operations, finance, and risk. These titles (responsibilities ultimately) may be filled by the same individual, or not. If not, they may be Ã¢â¬Å"outsourcedÃ¢â¬ which contributes further at times to the confusion and the possibility of oversights in ensuring lease obligations are being met. SequentraÃ ® is an integrated, collaborative, web-based real estate software solution and serves as a central repository for all portfolio and project-related information. Sequentra was developed by Johnson Controls to provide clients with enhanced communications and accountability for all facets of real estate and project-related requirements. This real estate software also contains a lease administration module that, when combined with the project tracking feature, can fully integrate a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s entire real estate database and reporting system. Transaction Management. Transaction management is the efficient management of real estate related dealings. Organizing information and tasks in a sequential order and makes the process easy to track by all parties involved with the transactions. Sending notifications to the transaction team members informing them that they have an active task. Ensuring that transactions are completed on schedule and that the transaction team works more efficiently thus reducing the cycle times. IX. Conceptual & Operational Framework Firstly, this study aims to explore the influence of using SequentraÃ ® based on operational advantage on the JCI-GWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services. Determine the features and benefits that Sequentra offers and find out if the clients, in turn, is satisfied. The researcher will start with three questions: First, is there an operational advantage that the Transaction Managers and Lease Administrators experienced in using SequentraÃ ®? Second, what benefits does SequentraÃ ® put forward to the clients? Third, who are the existing customers of the JCI-JWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services that have benefited from SequentraÃ ®. An in-depth interview method will be designed. Then, a questionnaire survey follows to validate how SequentraÃ ® influences the JCI-GWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services, and the client satisfaction. Figure 2. Conceptual Framework X. Scope and Limitations This study will be conducted mainly to explore the influence of using SequentraÃ ® on the JCI-GWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services and to the clients. The focus will be on the operational advantage of the services and the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction based on the benefits that SequentraÃ ® offers to their businesses. Data will be gathered through descriptive method. This will serve as the primary source of data collection. Secondary data will include related literature about the subject of the research. XI. Hypotheses The researcher proposes a direct relationship between using SequentraÃ ® and the operational advantage to the Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services of JCI-JWK and client satisfaction. H1. Using SequentraÃ ® which increases operation efficiency of service is positively related with client satisfaction. H2. Using SequentraÃ ® which increases operation efficiency of service is negatively related with client satisfaction when the services fail. XII. Bibliography Online Articles SequentraÃ ® Technology for the Real Estate Industry http://www. sequentra. com/solutions/sequentra. html SequentraÃ ® User Help Section http://www. sequentra. net/sequentra/help/user_help/new_help/! SSL! /FlashHelp/Sequentra_User_Help_Section. htm Business Process Outsourcing http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Business_process_outsourcing Information Technology http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Information_technology Biswajit Nag, Business Process Outsourcing: Impact and Implications, Bulletin on Asia-Pacific Perspectives 2004/05. Retrieved September 12, 2009 from ebsco. com Journals Bitner MJ (2001), Service and Technology: Opportunities and Paradoxes. Manage Service Quality 11(6):375Ã¢â¬â379 Bressolles G. (2004), The quality of electronic service, NETQUAL: scale, consequences and moderating variables, Ph. D. in Management Sciences, University of Toulouse I. Meyronin B (2004), ICT: the creation of value and differentiation in services. Manage Service Quality 14(2/3):216Ã¢â¬â225 Rolland S. (2003), The impact of Internet use on perceived quality and consumer satisfaction, PhD in Management Sciences, University Paris Dauphine. Wolfinbarger M. and Gilly M. C. (2003), E-TailQ: dimensionalizing, measuring and predicting retail quality, Journal of Retailing, 79, 183-198. XIII. Appendices Appendix 1. Sequentra Components SEQUENTRA COMPONENTS | |Project Module |Team assignment and milestone tracking (e-mail ticklers) | |Ã |Location deal point analysis | |Ã |Budget tracking | |Ã |Space programming | |Ã |Contacts database | | |Single repository for documents | | |Savings calculations | |Property Module |Rent stream and ex penses | | |Internal allocations | | |Lease clauses | | |Critical dates & options (e-mail ticklers) | | Contacts database | |Reporting |Standard reports library | | |Ad hoc reporting capability | | |Produces rich, highly formatted reports into Adobe Acrobat, Excel and HTML | |System Admin |Assigns flexible, secure access rights to end users | | |Capability to customize fields, e-mail notifications and project templates | | |Manage document templates library | Appendix 2. Specific Features and Benefits of SequentraÃ ® FEATURES |BENEFITS | |Project/Property Specific Bulletin |Cycle time for projects is greatly reduced as team members can communicate and collaborate on | |Board |projects anytime, anywhere. | |Web-based application |Does not require any software to be installed on a userÃ¢â¬â¢s local machine. The only requirement| | |is Internet access. | |Central repository for all project |Ã Lets users who are dispersed collaborate on files associated with each assignment. Users | |related files and document templates |always know where to go for the most recent version of a file. | |Flexible, secure access |Defined security levels ensure that users have access to applicable projects/properties. | |Process Automation, Milestone email |Communication is enhanced, as team members can be automatically e-mailed when an important | |Notifications |assignment milestone has been reached or falls behind schedule. | |Customizable |Can be customized to mirror your organization. | Appendix 3. SequentraÃ ®, an exclusive Real Estate Management tool with multiple advantages Because SequentraÃ ® was developed by real estate and e-business experts and is supported by Johnson Controls, a global real estate services and facilities management company, clients can count on a tool designed to help maximize the performance of their real estate assets. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Seamless integration between property and project modules to save time and eliminate errors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Real-time collaboration and information sharing to reduce cycle time. Ã¢â¬ ¢ 24/7 access to data from web-based browsers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Automated workflow ensures schedules are maintained and results are measurable. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Project team members have access to project files and templates. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Flexible access rights for file and project security. Embedded proactive email notifications enhance communication regarding project milestones. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fully customizable and scalable to fit the needs of any organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Generate self-definable reports with a user-friendly interface. Johnson Controls operates in more than 50 countries, with thousands of dedicated real estate services and facilities management employees, and a billion square feet under management. Customers benefit from a worldwide knowledge network focused on delivering strategically-based services and solutions designed to contribute to enterprise goals. Appendix 4. List of Existing Clients Below is a partial list of GWK clients that have benefited from SequentraÃ ® Solutions. Agilent Technologies |Manpower | |Cadbury |Otis | |Carrier Corporation |Pratt & Whitney | |Hamilton Sundstrand |Ryder | |Henry Schein |Sikorsky | |Motorola |Sonoco | | |United Technologies Realty | | |WPP | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â SequentraÃ ® Features and Benefits Operational advantage on the JCI-GWKÃ¢â¬â¢s Transaction Management and Lease Administration Services Client Satisfaction
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The culture and society is extremely different from our own because the people in the book are less social, but nowadays people seem to socialize a lot more. The book is set in a time known as manual labour where there is very little machinery. This required a lot of strength. The machinery had to be worked by man and was less sophisticated than the machinery we have now. It was a society of which people had to travel to get work and were paid very little for the amount of hard labour they had to do. They only had a few possessions so that they could carry them around wherever they went to work. If they were to carry a lot of things with them they would not have been able to carry them. One similarity is that the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitions, dreams and hopes are very much the same to modern times. Most people wanted to settle down at a ranch, have pets and live life easily. In the time the book was set it did not matter what background you came from as long as you worked hard you would be able to make something of your life. This is very much the same as modern times in America. In England this was very different because what background you came from entirely depended on what sort of job you were going to have when you grow up. This is still kind of the same because if you come from a poor background you will not be able to have a good education to get a good job. The men in the book are trapped in the society they are in because they are not going to be able to get a good job. They are going to buck barley for the rest of their lives. Steinbeck makes a very strong racial element throughout the story. Crooks the stable buck is classed as less than human because he is physically disabled by getting kicked on the back by a horse. Also he is black so people class him as a lower being. He lives in a barn away from everyone else. Occasionally they let him join in, in some of the games they play. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is also part of the racial element because she is classed as an object and maybe a sex object to Curley. In the book Steinbeck does not give her a name which also means that she is an object. Curley restricts her from doing anything because she is not allowed out of the house or out of the ranch. She has to stay in the house else Curley will get annoyed and beat her. Candy is also discriminated because he is old and unable to do hard labour so they make him wash the floors for very little money. Lennie is discriminated against because he is mentally disabled rather than anyone else. Most of the people in the story are nomadic which means that they don not have a permanent base. They people on the ranch have a poor standard of living because they have shared accommodation and have absolutely no privacy. It is also quite sexist because the ranch is almost exclusively male. They have an abbreviated speech dialect which sounds very weird from a modern perspective. Also being nomadic means that they have a tendency to fight and have very aggressive attitudes to people that they dislike. In general the society in the book is very similar to our own. This is because they socialize and play games with each other.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Aspen Industries' Financial Ratios - Liquidity Ratio, Current Ratio, Leverage Ratios, Total Debt Ratio IT project al Affiliation) Financial ratios Aspen Industries Financial ratiosFor the Year ended Dec. 31, 2013 and 2014 Financial ratios 2013 2014 Liquidity ratio Current ratio 0.90 1.84 Leverage ratios Total Debt ratio 0.61 0.50 Decisions Debt ratio analysis Debt ratio analysis is considered a solvency ratio that brings out the total liabilities of a firm as a percentage of the total assets that the firm has. In using this to make loan decision, it is used to show the assets that the company has that they are to sell in order to pay off the debts that they have (Bull, 2008). Debt ratio enables investors and also creditors to analyses the overall debt burden on the company that they operate as well as the ability of the firm to pay the debts that they have in future when the economic times are uncertain. In the calculations, the formula used is debt ratio is given by = The company that was choses has a debt ratio of 0.61 in 2013 and the ratio reduced to 0.50 in 2014. In loan consideration, companies that have high level of liabilities in their operation compared to assets are considered highly leveraged and these are more risky tom lenders. I recommend the company for a loan as it is observed that their debt ratio has reduced over the period and this makes them be legible and are thought to be able to pay their debts. Current ratio Current ratio is an efficiency and liquidity ratio which, measures the ability of a firm to pay off its short-term liabilities with the assets that the firm has at the current. The current ratio is important in determining giving out loan to a company as it determines the liability that is due in the next year (Bull, 2008). Through this it will indicate that the firm has a limited time that they are needed to raise the funds in order to raise funds so that they pay off for their liabilities. Current assets which the company has such as cash and marketable securities can be easily converted to cash. In this analysis, it shows that companies that have large amounts of current assets will more easily be able to pay off the current liabilities when they become due without the need to selloff the long term assets. The formula used in calculating the current asset is current ratio is given by = In the company, the current ratio was found to increase from 0.90 to 1.84. This implies that there is an increase in current assets and a reduction in current liabilities. The firm hence becomes legible to be given a loan as there is increase in current assets that they are able to sell off in order to pay the loan that they are given after a given period of time. Conclusion In analysis that was carried out in the company, it was determined that the ratios that the firm has; debt ratio and current ratio makes the firm qualify to be given a loan as they will be able to pay the loan at the required time through the assets that they have. Reference Bull, R. (2008). Financial ratios. Oxford: CIMA.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
The Consequences of Vietnam War on the American Society - Term Paper Example The most devastating effect on the society was felt by the Vietnamese veterans. They were so outraged by the injustice of the war that they formed the organization Ã¢â¬Å"Vietnam Veterans against the WarÃ¢â¬ . The organization grew tremendously to nearly 30,000 members from veterans in the U.S as well as officers on duty in Vietnam. In the Foreword of the book Telltale Hearts, Ambrose opines that all American wars have instigated some kind of uprising against the war but the movement against Vietnam War was by far the biggest, the most influential and ironically, the least effective too (Garfunkel, 1997). The returning veterans also experienced various health problems due to the use of chemicals and herbicides in the war. Many of the veterans returned home only to live the rest of their lives in fear of developing diseases from the chemicals and passing it down to their children. Others were now addicted to drugs such as heroin and marijuana which increased the demand of heroin in the U.S market. According to a study conducted by the Pentagon in 1970s, 35% of GIs had tried marijuana while the rate of this occurrence increased gradually because of the falling morale and changing culture (Kuzmarov, 2009). Hence, drug abuse grew in the American society as a result of the Vietnam War. The veterans of the war also suffered a lot of disgrace. They were severely stereotyped and were claimed unfit to readjust into society due to the gory, inhumane nature of the Vietnam War and hence, were ostracized for their participation in the war. Even though these veterans served their country just like any other, they were not given the same respect or appreciation. The writer of the book The Vietnam War rightly says that if the people of a nation are against a certain governmental policy, it is seldom to succeed and even if it does, the impact is temporary and rightly so (Huynh & Werner, 1993). The Vietnam veteranÃ¢â¬â¢s memorial was erected primarily to return the honor and respect the troops deserved despite the political reasons of the war. It was built seven years after the war which was a bit too late to commemorate the sacrifices of the soldiers. Despite the concern of POVs, people were less concerned about the internal matters of U.S and more about the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in Vietnam, or the foreign policy. Eventually the society began to see the war differently and began to distrust the U.S government. Initially it was the poor people who sacrificed. It was their sons who were sent to war. Eventually the lives of the middle and upper classes started getting effected too. This is when the hue and cry against the war actually started (Huynh & Werner, 1993). The military also became extremely unpopular in the eyes of the American people. The war did not affect U.S position as the super power because the country was not physically hit. However, it did bring about a change in the internal politics of the country. The early 1970s witnessed Ã¢ â¬Å"Momentous changesÃ¢â¬ in the US because of the war. Previously, the congress was flexible with the formulation of the foreign policy by the executive and decided to ignore the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s manipulation. However, around this time, this practice was coming to an end (Brown, 1991). These changes proved to bring about a
Sleep Paralysis - Essay Example Gregory Stores (2001, P. 21) argues that Ã¢â¬Å"the episode of paralysis may be accompanied by hallucinatory experiences or dreamlike experiences which can be very dramatic and alarming, sometimes including the appearance of people or creatures taking on a threatening aspect.Ã¢â¬ It was often believed until modern rationality took over the realm of thought in people that occurrences of such disorders were due to the influence of demonic and spiritual effect in vulnerable humans. David J. Hufford (1982), in his book2 exhaustively discusses this belief referring it to the Ã¢â¬Å"old hagÃ¢â¬ tradition that he learnt particularly form Newfoundland. Scientific theories, and approaches, on the other hand, have been devised with not one with solid hold on its understanding. In this paper, we shall make an attempt in understanding the phenomenon of sleep paralysis with various angles, particularly scientific and dogmatic. We shall try and find out its symptoms or the experience while it occurs and subsequently try to unveil its causes, scientific or otherwise. We shall then study its effects in human psychology or thought. A few direct experiences of people shall be quoted and a possibility of its cure or precaution shall also be analyzed before concluding. The occurrence of sleep paralysis is indeed intimidating and troublesome. It seems, to many, a trance-like situation where our body with its inability to perform movement or even to cry out for help remains still, as though spell-bound by some strange demonic or spiritual cause until we are relieved suddenly from a grip what was rigid and ominous indeed. It occurs just before we fall asleep or as we are awakening. Dr. Rose Windale (2008) in her website of health and wellness tips describes the experience as thus: Ã¢â¬Å"A person may struggle to breathe while experiencing sleep paralysis.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Write an of five sources for hydrogen fuel cell cars - Annotated Bibliography Example Authors in this study highlight diverse aspects related to hydrogen knowhow especially in terms of transportation, conversion and distribution, which experts ought to consider (Corbo, Migliardini & Veneri, 2011). They have also given an analysis of the current and available fuel cell technologies in relation to hydrogen in quest of ascertaining the equipmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ realization of the required efficiency. This source comprises of valid information best for researchers and those who may intend to venture in the field of implementing hydrogen knowhow. In this source, SÃ ¸rensen acknowledges the breakthrough so far made regarding the usage of hydrogen in improving global economy besides safeguarding environment (SÃ ¸rensen, 2012). However, he raises varied and critical concerns regarding emergent knowhow meant to extract hydrogen, store and distribute to various destinies where humanity intends to use it. It is from this perspective that SÃ ¸rensen highlights varied aspects regarding hydrogen knowhow including benefits and obstacles, which the researchers ought to consider. The author of this reference is a global-renowned energy researcher who has offered a rich literature meant for study especially in the energy field (SÃ ¸rensen, 2012). Hwang highlights benefits of utilizing hydrogen as fuel in scooters compared to the tradition traditional based petroleum fuels. According to his study, the new emergent hydrogen knowhow does not pose threat to the environment and it is rapidly replacing petroleum-based fuels. This is because hydrogen cell scooters do not contribute to the emission of GHGs (Hwang, 2012). Therefore, the sourceÃ¢â¬â¢s information is essential in outlining benefits, which the current knowhow posses over the traditional petroleum-based in comparison. Raine in this article reports EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s readiness in implementing the Hydrogen knowhow. Since, it is cheap compared to the former fuels especially
Friday, July 26, 2019
No topic - Essay Example ups to effectively solicit diverse inputs and share knowledge, skills and abilities towards an identified goal; (2) simulations and games, where learning objectives can be achieved through designing instructional approaches with simulations (paralleling actual learning environments) and games that encourage thinking outside the box and soliciting the creative skills of students; (3) use of software applications in learning through searching and navigating online sites for research projects, essays, or taking academic performance tests and fun learning games; (4) collaborative writing, where students would be assigned specific research topics where essays are to be written through group efforts (this particular scenario could use research based strategies that include cooperative grouping and technological integration); and (5) blogging feedback was also one of the classroom examples evaluated which could be used in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom as a means of soliciting inputs, comments, fee dbacks from students using technological applications, as required. All of these implementation strategies are feasible and applicable in contemporary classroom settings where students are enjoined to participate and
Thursday, July 25, 2019
A Report on Reasons why Governments Prefer Financial Systems featuring Fixed - Essay Example On the other hand, a floating rate of exchange is the one that is moving and received currency depends on exchange time.To maintain their local exchange rate, central banks of European Union members bought and sold their own currency in foreign exchange markets, and in return, they acquired their pegged currency. For example, if the value of a single local unit currency is US$4, the central bank ensures that those dollars can be supplied in market by the country. High foreign reserve levels are required so as to maintain the rates (Eichengreen & Ricardo, 1999). High foreign reserve levels also ensure that there is good money supply thus preventing inflation/ deflation. An exchange rate refers to the rate at which one currency is exchanged for another. Therefore, it is the value of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s currency in terms of another. From 1870 to 1914, the global exchange rate was fixed. During that time, currency was likened to gold, implying that a local currencyÃ¢â¬â¢s value was set at a fixed exchange rate that was determined in terms of gold ounces, that is, the gold standard (Eichengreen & Ricardo, 1999). This allowed free capital mobility and global stability in trade and currencies. The gold standard was abandoned when World War II started, but the end of the Second World War, the Breton Woods conference sought for efforts to stabilize the global economy and increasing global trade by establishing basic regulations and rules that governed international exchange. This led to the establishment of International Monetary Fund (IMF) for foreign trade promotion and monetary stability maintenance of countries and hence of the global economy. It was agreed that the exchange rate would be fixed, in terms of the US dollars, which was then pegged to gold (US$35 per ounce) (Obstfeld & Kenneth, 1995). This means that a currencyÃ¢â¬â¢s value was directly converted in terms of its value to the US dollar. For example, to buy a euro, the Euros had to be converted into US dollars, and then into gold value. This peg was maintained till 1971, US dollar could not hold the pegged rate value of US$ 35per gold ounce. Since then, many governments adopted the floating rate system and attempts of returning to gold like a peg together with a global peg were completely abandoned. Why Governments Prefer Fixed/ Pegged Exchange Rates Governments prefer fixed exchange rates because they ensure economic stability, especially in current developing nations, where a country can decide to fix its currency in order to stabilize the atmosphere thus ensuring foreign investment. This is because a peg gives the investors their investment value, thus relieving them from fluctuation worries unlike under a float (Calvo, 2002). A pegged currency also helps in lowering inflation rates and generating demand, which further increases a currencyÃ¢â¬â¢s stability confidence. However, fixed regimes can cause serious financial crises because it is hard to maintain a peg in the long r un. This was experienced in 1995 in Mexico, 1997 in Asia and Russia. Therefore, the governments could not meet the demands of a high value for their currencies to the peg resulting into overvaluing of their currencies. With panic and speculations, investors quickly removed their money out of these countries, and convert it to foreign currencies before the local currency was devalued against the peg. Eventually, foreign currencies became depleted. In Mexico, the government devalued the peso by 29.98%. Eventually, in Thailand, the government eventually allowed floating of
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Engineering managment - Essay Example In the first office, the manager seems to be very casual with the employees. She has been running her office informally and she seems to be a populist and she does not like falling apart with her team members. She seems like she has no clearly defined objectives. She also does not like keeping records, especially those of the appraisal. Her rewarding system is based on gut instincts instead of facts. Everybody seems to love the manager. On the other hand, the second office is a complete contrast of the first. The manager is reserved (Sachs and Falcone 45). He is focused so much on the appraisal which is already predetermined defined. He seems to be more of the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ flaws and shortcomings. He seems like he rewards the employees depending on their performance and the context, though he appreciates all his team members. There is a need to develop appraisal guidelines to ensure that the appraisal is effective. Firstly, I would ensure that I design a performance standard form that is standard. This would specify the performance dimensions that would be evaluated (Grote 63). Some of these dimensions include job descriptions, and goals among others. I would also ensure I have formulated behavioral checklist would focus on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance rather than comparisons. Secondly, there is need to have a performance review after every six months. This would ensure that the employees are reminded about their performance. Thirdly, there is a need to ensure that employees are given their chance to suggest updates to their job description as well as giving a written input on the appraisal. Fourthly, there is need for managers to document their inputs; they should avoid acting like Amanda. In addition, the rewarding system should be defined. It is also good to ensure that the managers are always a ssertive. They should now focus so much on the
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Rhetorical Analysis of George Saunders's story "christmas" and "sea oak" - Essay Example One of his sisters contends that if they had secured a diploma certificate, they could understand the television content and not be sidetracked in any way. The sisters discuss about the number of sides a triangle has from their low social class Sea Oak home. The neighborhood is rife with crime, even as Thomas and Auntie Bernie are forced to sacrifice their own life and dignity in an attempt to improve the poverty situation. This paper explores the use of satire in Sea Oak; the importance of the literary style to and effectiveness in the storyline. SaundersÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of the low-class setting is both comical and somehow pushy into resignation. There is a wind of hopelessness in the whole scene. At first, Freddy orders the children to make a squat, hence projecting the image of the dangerous crap-hole more vividly. Then the engulfed lot feels the tragic side of life in the freaking American life where capitalism dictates that the underprivileged work out extremely hard to earn a place in the less risky crap-hole. According to Saunders, the demise of Aunt Bernice plunges the family into financial doldrums, which affect her giving of a decent burial (4). The bereaved are forced to buy a low-priced, balsa-made coffin for the Aunt. Immediately the burial, a church minister tells them the body of their loved one had been procured inappropriately. BerniceÃ¢â¬â¢s spirits then leave her body and advance in the house in Christ-like fashion to offer the family effective guidance on how to overcome the nasty situation they are in. Bernice continues decaying in their residence. As her arms break away, she utters wise words on how to cope with life. She repeatedly tells Thomas to go show his manly strength out there. Rando says message basically implies that the only path to success in the society is to steer clear of morality and becoming a prostitute (438). Although she succumbed to death without ever being touched by a man, Aunt Bernice is lamenting that
Blue Nile Case Essay Background Blue Nile has grown into one of the largest jewelry retailers in the United States with only using the Internet as its distribution channel. The success is a direct result of a well-crafted business strategy that attracts high price customers and provides them with in-depth education about diamonds and jewelry. Gamble, Peteraf, Strickland III, and Thompson (2012), indicated that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy provides customers with high quality diamonds, exceptional customer service and low prices (p. c-128). They pride themselves on their selection and outstanding education that they provide to consumers looking for the perfect diamond. In addition they have received various awards and recognition from Forbes and Bizrate.com (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble, Strickland, 2012, p. C-127). Blue Nile has found a niche in which to differentiate itself by creating an online marketplace for jewelry shopping and with low operating costs which makes them extremely competitive. In viewing Blue Niles website, one can see that they have a vast amount of for potential buyers, that which determine a diamondÃ¢â¬â¢s value- carat, clarity, color, cut, and cut grade. Strength The company has a user friendly site that present a lot of diamonds styles to choose from with the 5CÃ¢â¬â¢s of diamond selection which are cut shape, cut, color, clarity and carat weight. Their price is much lower than others. Blue Niles also prides themselves on their selection and outstanding education that they provide to consumers looking for the perfect diamond (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble, Strickland, 2012, p. C-127). Weakness Blue Nile competes in a small area with a specialty offering. Brand awareness remains a constant source of weakness for the company. Blue Nile, Inc. needs to increase their advertising campaign to attract new and retain old customers. Opportunities Blue Nile needs to create a strong brand awareness that will allow can compete with Tiffany and Co. Blue Nile, Inc. recently opened warehouses in Canada and Britain, but has limited globalization to sales of 40 nations. Blue Nile will need global growth into the European market could prove to be a financial success. Threats Through the operating capital calculations it indicates that Blue Niles strategy is needs some adjustments in the current market space. From 2005 to 2009 the cash that has been available for the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s day-to-day operations has dropped dramatically. There was an estimated $58.8 billion in sales in the United States alone in 2009 (Thompson, 2012, p. C-127). With Blue Nile taking $302 million in sales in 2009, they had a great year but in reality only maintain a less than 1% of the market industry hold. This suggests that there is room for growth in this are. With steady profits for the past two years, 2011 has been the best year even though the 4th quarter resulted in small loss. The company profits are 2011 $348 million, 2010 $332.9 million, 2009 $302.1 million, and in 2008 $295.3 million be (Blue Nile, 2012, Investor Relations). References: Blue Nile, Inc. 2011 Annual Report (2012). Blue Nile, Inc. (online). Retrieved from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/NILE/1855688484x0x560442/D1DAE1BA-0161-4574-8447-242F9561DF0E/2011_Annual_Report_FINAL.pdf Thompson, A. A., Peteraf, M. A., Gamble, J. E., Strickland, A. J. (2012). Crafting executing strategy: The quest for competitive advantage (18th ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Discussion 6.1 Jeffrey Clapper Jeffrey, I agree with your posting and I enjoyed reading it also. In reviewing the financials and the Internet site, it is apparent that Blue Nile spends a lot of money in the area that has no direct impact on generating profit. Blue Nile is now pursuing a new market consisting of non-engagement jewelry by offering an expanded range of products across several price points. This market should offer a great amount of growth opportunities for now and the future. All in all the brand and name recognition is the key aspect that the must pay attention to. Discussion 6.1 Michael Veltman Michael, Your post was very insightful. A main issue for Blue Nile is the lack of exposure through the their advertising. Blue Nile offers the best prices while still being able to create a profit. The low operations cost of the business enables them to offer low prices and still make a profit. On the other hand the lack of store front exposure creates a problem for gaining additional clients. By adding new products they can create there reach and drive more revenue.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Public Display of the Ten Commandments Essay People often find memorization exhausting and more like tiresome. All those numerous words and lines to remember tend to tire and bore most of them. Moreover, most of the time, they tend to memorize just for the heck of it and not for the benefit of understanding and knowledge. The Ten Commandments are some of the most popular lines that Christians should memorize and know by heart. These lines have long served as ChristiansÃ¢â¬â¢ guiding passages and words towards the path to righteousness and morality. However, considering the generation todayÃ¢â¬âwhen more and more people detest the idea of memorizing and reading very thick pagesÃ¢â¬âwill the Ten Commandments still possess their utmost effect? Will they be able to serve their purpose of guiding the people towards goodness when not all Christians nowadays are able to memorize them? In what ways can the Christian Church assure that people are still living up to the message presented by the Ten Commandments? These are just some of the uncertainties on the effectiveness of the Holy Bible in reminding people about the Ten Commandments. Is Reading Enough? Today, as the developments in the information technologies continue to rise, the usual activities like conversing, sending messages, and even reading can be done through the use of a computer and an internet connection. Considering this reality, doubts on whether people nowadays are still grasping the idea of the Ten Commandments by reading the Bible may arise. However, this can be possible if there are numerous electronic copies of the Holy Bible available for people to access anywhere, and such copies have plenty of attractive visual designs, as humans are inherently visual beings (Pahlavan 270). HumanÃ¢â¬â¢s visual system is supported by other sensory organs which empower and strengthen its sensitivity to stimuli. Putting these facts in simpler terms, a person is said to have a natural tendency to prefer things which are more attractive to the sense of sight above other senses. Hence, it may be understandable why people tend to read more colorful and visually attractive materials compared to the intimidating and profound words of the Holy Bible. Knowing this, it can be inferred that putting a Bible beside a person who has the access to the internet and all its wonders would assure that that person would read it and understand what it says. Furthermore, people can no longer expect most children to prioritize the memorization of the Ten Commandments when they have all those tough and demanding homework and projects to do. Thus, is the Christian Church still assured that people read The Bible and the Ten Commandments everyday? If not, then how can the Ten Commandments be further promoted? Appealing to HumanÃ¢â¬â¢s Visual Preference At present, the huge banners, billboards, posters, and different visual advertisements are typical scenery along roads, malls, and literally almost everywhere. Various creative, artistic, and innovative ways are now used just to disseminate information better. Nowadays, these methods are typically through very visual advertisements. The message of the Holy Bible, specifically the Ten Commandments, is considered as the most important and relevant teaching of the Christian faith. Compared to the public service announcements of the government, mallsÃ¢â¬â¢ sales promotion, introduction of a new brand of soda, and all the other popular topics of ads today, it seems that the promotion of the Ten Commandments and all the other relevant messages of the Holy Bible has become a little unmerited. It is ironic that these messages are what appears to be the most significant and relevant messages for the people, yet why are there more ads for sodas, clothing lines, celebrities, and TV shows as compared to these important reminders? Also, if the Ten Commandments appear to be the greatest instructions and guidelines the people must comply with, why are there simpler and shorter road signs and traffic rules displayed compared to these profound yet very important words to follow and live by? This seems to be the greatest irony in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisements and visual display practices. The significance of the Ten Commandments has been an eternal and undying idea among Christians. People exactly know that the Ten Commandments are the written key for salvation and freedom for sin, yet these commandments are still left unadvertised and unannounced compared to how the big ad agencies promote different products which do not actually level to the significance of the Ten Commandments in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives. Looking at this truth, it may seem disturbing and appalling how people value information that modern advertisements promote while they leave the message of the Ten Commandments unnoticed or disregarded. It also seems depressing, considering how the attitude of people towards these commandments has changed over the generations. This change in attitude and interest might have been caused by the technological advancements that the intelligent and creative minds of people themselves have created. Thus, it may appear necessary for the advocates of the Holy Bible and the Ten Commandments to go and ride with the growing technology in order to assure that people are not forgetting the Ten Commandments. With this effort, it can also be assured that people will always be reminded about these commandments and what they really mean. The display of the Ten Commandments can be most typically seen in churches. People seldom see these messages displayed in billboards or in freedom walls and posters. However, knowing the importance of these commandments in the lives of people, will it be improper to publicly display this message, or is it more appropriate to leave these messages in the pages of the Bible, hence leaving the choice to people whether they will choose to read it or not. Considering the abovementioned claims about human beings as visual creatures, and about the growth of very powerful advertising techniques, it may indeed be necessary for the Ten Commandments to appeal to the human sense of sight in order to keep up with the powerful advertisements people see nowadays. There could be several ways on how this special message can be promoted in order not to violate other beliefs and culture. What matters most is to send the message and assure that Christians will always remember its significance wherever they go. A variety of learning theories attest that remembering does not usually happen in the blink of an eye. In reality, it actually takes most people a certain period of time to remember something and fully understand its meaning. Memorizing and remembering the Ten Commandment are not an easy task as well. It is not also everyday that a teacher asks their students to memorize the Ten Commandments. Thus, people are not really sure as to whether the Ten Commandments are still remembered and observed nowadays. With this, it only goes to show that proper endorsement, exposure, and promotion are what these commandments really need. If public displays make a brand of soda very popular worldwide, how much more help it could do if a list of simple messages would be displayed to remind the people about moral stability and righteousness of the world? If powerful advertisements can make a politician and a celebrity known globally, how much more can it remind people about God who should be the most influential and the most popular idol above anyone else? This is not a major impossibility; people are just being hesitant to make it happen. The Bottom Line The Ten Commandments, in reality, may not be the most popular set of phrases and commands there are for people to remember. Yet, these commandments must be the most popular and the most significant set of messages that people should remember to live by everyday. While most people nowadays tend to overlook and disregard the Ten Commandments, people can never deny or refute the fact that the commandments are the simplest and the most fundamental set of laws that Christians must follow each day of their lives in order to preserve their moral stability and their positive and open connection to the Lord. The Ten Commandments are even considered as the fence which, when broken, may let a sheep out in an open field without any direction and sense of security (Frederick 1). It does not actually take a Bible genius to understand and fully grasp the message of the Ten Commandments; what someone needs is a person who is ready and willing to embrace what the Ten Commandments say in order to understand it fully. Perhaps, having these commandments displayed publicly may not violate GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will, for it might even give Him great help in disseminating the good news. If people are able to remember the many traffic rules there are on the roads. It may not be that hard to remember these simple commandments. If people are able to internalize popular phrases and quotes from politicians, it may not be that impossible as well for them to grasp what God is trying to teach people through the Ten Commandments. People are not always reminded everyday about the importance of the Ten Commandments and how these commandments should be lived out as well. Thus, displaying these special messages for public view may appear not just as a reminder but as an eternal and unchanging message as well of how the Lord wants His people to be always righteous and be on the right track. Works Cited Frederick, Allen. Ã¢â¬Å"Do the Ten Commandments Matter? Ã¢â¬ . Helium. com. 13 March 2009 http://www. helium. com/items/1206086-thou-shalt-not. Pahlavan, Kourosh. Ã¢â¬Å"Designing an Anthropomorphic Head-Eye System. Ã¢â¬ Visual Attention and Cognition. Eds. C. Freska, H. S. Stiehl, and W. H. Zangemeister. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science, 1996. 269-292.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
US Criminal Justice: Ethics and Professional Behaviour Ethics and professional behaviour are an important part of criminal justice administration. Ethics involves making moral judgements about what is good or bad, right or wrong. Ethics help us to make right choices when we are in a dilemma which involves moral issues. The Criminal justice administration faces ethical issues very often and it is important to deal with them in a professional manner. The administration suffers with issues in certain situations that are hard to handle and it is the duty or rather we can say the criminal justice administration are obliged to make moral judgements of what is right or wrong and this is done with the help of proper critical thinking. Good ethics contribute to professional behaviour. Law enforcement plays a major role in professional behaviour and ethics. The unethical acts by criminal justice are serious and there are possibilities for conflicts in the areas of criminal justice leading to unethical decisions. It is necessary that ethics and pro fessional behaviour are practiced every time. If the administration is unethical and there is no professional behaviour then it is obvious for the society to lose faith in the criminal justice system. Ethics and professional behaviour are directly related to each other. Lack of ethics lead to lack of professional behaviour which means a weak criminal justice administration. Ethics are moral values or moral judgements which we make in order to decide what is right or wrong, good or bad. For making this type of decision, one needs to have a sound mind and the moral principles do not apply themselves, a thinking mind is required to asses facts and interpret situations. Moral agents make moral judgements and it is our duty to use the ethical principles in a right way. Moral principles mean something only when manifested in behaviour. For this, force should be embodied in action and this action requires an insight. Ethical persons are motivated to do what is morally right but they can only do so if they know what it is. It is important that the ethically motivated persons should learn the art of self-critique, moral examination to become attuned to the pervasive pitfalls of moral judgement: moral intolerance, self-deception, and uncritical uniformity. (http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/ethics-without-indoctrination/494). Morality and character can be cul tivated without being indoctrinated by putting in the critical thinking into the heart of ethical curriculum, critical thinking for everyone. Hence, it can be said that without critical thinking ethics and professional behaviour cant be maintained. Thus, critical thinking plays a major role. Our greatest training is ethics and leadership is required in order to boost its growth. It is seen that most departments dont conduct ethics training and the consequences of these unethical behaviour is devastating. One of the more detrimental consequences of unethical behaviour is subjecting of an agency to civil litigation. Litigations have various forms: racial and sexual discrimination, sexual harassment suits etc. Lack of ethical behaviour leads to loss of jobs of the officers and many a times the unemployment compensation is not even offered. It is also noticed that many a times the officers commit suicide as they fail to deal with the unethical acts. Hence, one should try and prevent any kind of unethical act as it will help us to save the lives of our officers. The most extensive ethics training survey conducted by law enforcement was undertaken in 1997. This in return, has produced several recommendations for changes in how one should address the ethics today. Hence, ethics training should highly be encouraged and seminars should be conducted so that our officers deal with unethical behaviour without fearing anything and should join hands to eliminate it. The fundamental duties of Law Enforcement Officers include: serving the mankind, safeguarding lives of the people and property, protecting the weak against oppression, maintaining law and order, and to respect the Constitutional rights of everyone. They are honest in thought and deed and obey the laws of the land and regulations of their department. He should make sure that his personal feelings and friendships dont influence his decisions. He should see that he doesnt makes any kind of compromises for crime and that he will enforce the laws accordingly and appropriately without any favour or malice. The officer should realise that his badge is a symbol of public faith and it is his duty to be true to the ethics of the police service. All these areas should be stressed in the seminar on law enforcement. Ethical training overrules all other training needs. Ethical training emphasizes the importance of thinking before acting. It adds value to the organization and to the community. The study of ethics increases sensitivity to the issues of right or wrong and the right way to conduct oneself. Only through studying ethics is it possible to define and detect unethical behavior. The study of the ethics enables the development of tools that enhances ones decision making. The training in ethics helps to develop analytical skills and reasoning abilities which are required to understand the theoretical as well as practical aspects of criminal justice system. The expected benefits of training the officers are: To recognize the ethical problem, To make a sound choice and right decision, To accept his responsibility. Provides ethical tools to deal with ethical problems. Ethics training should provide tools that assist them to think and act ethically in both their personal and professional lives. Ethics training encourages the professional to be an integrated person and this integrity must be personal as well as professional. Ethics training can be thus viewed as Risk Management because their motto is to prevent injuries to people and thats what ethical training aims at. Thus, it can be said that ethics training program provides tools which helps make a right decision which will contribute to the betterment of the community even. Answer to Question 2 Police agencies have got various functions which include preventing and controlling the conduct and behavior that threatens property or life, maintaining security etc. Sometimes the police agencies even take care of those who are incapable of taking their own care, for example physically challenged or mentally ill people. It is their duty to resolve the conflicts that arise and to identify the problems that give rise to danger. The police agencies differ depending on the three levels local, state and federal levels. Local agencies deal with emergency services, routine patrol, and detention for juveniles, community relations, record keeping, creating agendas etc. The primary purpose of these local agencies is to uphold the laws of the jurisdiction and investigate crimes at local level. State agencies are supposed to maintain public relations, safety and the criminal investigations. Federal agencies are specialized, having separate mandates to enforce certain types of federal laws (there are about 200 federal crimes). (http://www.faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/111/111lect05.htm) It deal with matters affecting the entire country i.e. terrorism, organized crime etc. Comparison: Local, State and Federal agencies share the same roles and functions as it is mentioned above. Contrasts: The difference lies only in cases of certain jurisdictions that affect the funding, operation and support. Local levels: The officers here are supported largely by the support staffs, detectives, jailers and protect the citizens and to enforce the laws passed at all levels of the government. They differ from the state and federal level as their activities are confined only to the jurisdictions they have been assigned. State Levels: The officers working under state level enforce local, state and federal laws; many are even found enforcing state traffic, civil or criminal laws. Even the officers in the state prison are taken as a part of law enforcement efforts different from others in that they enforce state laws within state institution. Federal levels: Different types of agents are employed including the special agents, ranging from the FBI (federal bureau of investigation), Bureau of alcohol to the Indian Affairs bureau. Their task is not to enforce state or local laws but to intervene when matters at global level are concerned. The law enforcement field is changing in its organizational strategies, methods and various aspects. Organizational management aims in improving the services, and the trends of development at various levels of the policing organizations. As we all know that the police agencies are bestowed with routine functions at numerous operational levels. These agencies highly contribute to the criminal justice systems and contribute to the other organizations. The trends on which the future policing will operate depend upon the way each of the organization is affected. It is these trends which clarify the operational aspects within the policing organizations. The management employs different levels of people to make decisions based on the success of the organization. The organizational management differs at all the three levels as the local levels are confined to the jurisdictions assigned where as the state levels enforces laws of state, locals as well as federal and the federal levels looks a fter the matters relating to the global level. Answer to Question 3 The safeguards against application of criminal laws are the criminal procedures. These procedures are designed to enforce the constitutional rights of criminal suspects and defendants. The constitutional provisions are mentioned in the IV, V, VI and VIII Amendments to the U.S Constitution. Fourth Amendment: (Exclusionary Rule) The right to be free from unreasonable searches and arrests is covered by the fourth amendment. The people shall be free and it is the right of the people to be secure in their houses against any kind of seizures. The warrants against the person shall only be issued if there is an authentic cause and the warrant shall be supported by an oath or affirmation which includes the details of the place to be searched. Since fourth amendment prohibits unreasonable searches hence, a warrant isnt required often. The U.S. Supreme Court has held that the Fourth Amendment doesnt require a warrant for all searches; rather it prohibits unreasonable searches. (http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Criminal_Procedure.aspx ) Fifth Amendment: (Miranda warnings) It deals with concerns which require proper procedures to be followed, like the death penalty, multiple trials for same criminal offence which is also referred to as Double Jeopardy, self incrimination etc. It states that no person shall be held to answer for a capital unless on presentment of a Jury, no person shall be subject for the same offence twice put in jeopardy of life, and that no person shall be deprived of liberty, property without the process of law. Sixth Amendment: (Right to Counsel and Speedy trial) It provides that the accused shall enjoy the Right to public trial by an impartial Jury of State in all criminal prosecutions; he should be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, he should be made to confront with the witnesses against him and to have processes to obtain the witnesses in his favour. The federal courts must comply with all the criminal procedures that are listed in the Constitution. For State Courts, the Supreme Court has adopted an approach called the selective incorporation approach where fundamental rights are protected which include freedom from unreasonable researches, freedom from cruel punishment; assistance of counsel, protection against double jeopardy etc. In juvenile proceedings, juvenile courts must afford to the juveniles basic constitutional protections. It is also been held that the Fourth Amendment requires that a juvenile who is arrested without a warrant should be provided with a probable cause hearing. The exclusionary rule applies to federal adjudications. In juvenile proceedings, the juveniles are entitled to the Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination despite the non-criminal nature of the proceedings. The Fifth Amendment applies since a juvenile defendants liberty is at stake. The Sixth Amendment applies to juveniles just as it applies to the adults accused of crime. Discuss the impact that these safeguards (e.g., Right to Counsel, Miranda Warnings, and speedy trial, the exclusionary rule, etc.) have on the day-to- day operation of adult and juvenile courts. It has been seen that under the automobile exception, warrantless searches of an automobile may be permitted if the police officer believes that a certain automobile holds the evidence of a crime. This exception is in no ways a violation of the Fourth Amendment because the vehicles are mobile and the drivers dont really have much privacy. This reduced expectation of privacy permits the officers with probable cause to search a vehicle and inspect the passenger and drivers belongings. However, it is not required by the states to adopt this exception as expanded protections are provided by New Hampshire under the Fourth Amendment. The Exclusionary Rule deals with the protection of the rights to be free from unreasonable searches. It holds that the subject matter that is obtained illegally by the officers must not be used as evidence. To make an arrest, police needs to have an arrest warrant and if the police believes that there is a probable cause and there was no time to create the warrant then he can make a warrantless arrest. In dealing with juveniles, police issue Miranda Warnings to youths prior to custodial investigation. (http://cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/A-separate-system-for-juveniles.topicArticleId-10065,articleid-10059.html ) At the time of the arrest it is important that the officer reads out the Miranda warnings to the arrestee, which says that the arrestee might obtain the right to counsel and the right to remain silent. In case these warnings are not read out then the statements he would make after the arrest may be excluded from the trial. Hence, it is visible that these constitutional safeguards affect the adult and juvenile courts and has a huge impact. Answer to Question 4 Impact of globalization on the U.S. criminal justice system Globalization refers to the global outlook of different nations of the globe who unite in terms of economy, society and politics. Globalization talks of all the nations as a whole and thus, it has been successful in reuniting all the nations together as one. Globalization aims at helping nations communicate with each other and therefore, the whole process of globalization is an amalgamation of integration and interaction among people belonging to different nations, cast, and organizations of various nations. Economic integration through investment and trade, political interaction, information technologies and culture constitutes its various magnitudes which directly affect the environment. Globalization has a huge impact on the lives of people and has greatly affected the world. Movement of materials and goods within national boundaries is easily possible, it is easy to procure external financing opportunities, the markets are now interrelated and nations are ready to provide their s upport, any kind of information can now be sent from one part to another with the help of satellites and internet, due to globalization people communicate through social networks and make friends across the globe etc. As technology advances and the power of technologies improve, it is obvious that the opportunity for cyber crimes will also increase. With the advance in technologies, a day will come when it will be real difficult to catch hold of these cyber criminals so it is necessary that a Criminal justice system is formulated which keeps themselves updated with the new technologies. Technological advances have a great influence in crime fighting. Crimes can be prevented by the use of advanced technologies like DNA analysis, radio frequency, surveillance developments etc. Because of globalization the people can even use intelligence databases which are usually carried by the police. Also, bilateral transfer of information between the countries will lead to changes in the countrys criminal justice system. Globalization has improved the technologies and in a way has brought carious nations close together. An anti-terrorism legislation investigates the terrorist cases and the process of screening, investigating has changed. A desire to improve the persisting relations has been expressed and jurisdiction programs and activities have been adopted to improve relations. Hence, it can be said that globalization has had a great impact in improving the U.S criminal justice system. Comparison among Civil Law, Common law, and Islamic Law and Socialist Law traditions The four legal traditions are as follows: Civil Law systems: It is the largest and most prevalent system of justice in the world. It is also referred as Continental justice, Roman law or Germano-romanic justice. Roman law is practiced in places like Germany, France and throughout Latin America. The object of civil law is the redress of wrongs by compelling compensation or restitution. (http://www.diffen.com/difference/Civil_law_vs_criminal_law) Legal scholarships are sophisticated in this kind of system and it has respect for tradition whereas in case of common law anybody can get a scholarship. The leaders of the continental justice are considered above the law whereas in common law nobody is above the law. Common law systems: These traditions exist in the U.S, Australia, England, Canada, India and colonies of Africa. They believe that any law originates in customs. In this system, the lawyers make interpretations and the precedents have control over the judges. Public trial is a very important constituent of this law system. Socialist law systems: This kind of tradition exists in Africa, Asia and parts of Latin America wherever there has been a communist revolution. It is also referred to as Communist Justice or Marxist Leninist justice. It is a positive law which aims at improvement. Administrative law prevails here as the decisions are mostly taken by the non-officials and neither judges nor lawyers are permitted to make law. Islamic systems: Famous as Muslim or Arabic justice. All the procedures and practices in this law are derived from the Koran. These are in the form of commands or orders which rule the life of an individual. It is the only law which believes that each and every law is of divine origin. Like in Roman or Common law, it might happen that an unlawful/unethical behavior is tolerated but in case of Islamic law never. Since, only a few verses of the Koran are used in Islamic law hence, it is mandatory that the religion plays an important role. Impact of cyber crime and technology on worldwide justice systems Cybercrime or criminal crime is a criminal activity where a computer is a source, target and place of the crime. It comprises of embezzlement, forgery, theft, fraud or blackmail and all this involves the presence of computers. Cybercrime ranges from email spams to threats of cyber wars, few of its forms are examples of simple theft such as stealing credit cards, bank account passwords etc. As the technology advances and the power of technologies improve, the opportunity for cyber related crimes will also gain momentum. So, it is important that the criminal justice systems keeps up with the advancing technologies or else it would get difficult to get hold of these cyber criminals. Cyber crime has huge impact on the victims and the criminal justice system despite the presence of network security programs and organizations who work to counteract these crime related threats, cybercrime continue to increase. It shouldnt mean that because cybercrime occurs therefore, we will stop using int ernet to work or play. Majority of sites on the internet are legitimate and our lives are highly enhanced because of the cyber tools. Users susceptibility to cybercrime can be reduced by the conduct of training programs by the employers as a part of security plan. Measures have been taken by the organizations to reduce the spread of cybercrimes. Globalization has greatly influenced the lives of the people by bringing in new methods and technologies and it has its own negative impact too. Advancement in the technologies has also contributed to the increased number of cybercrimes. The policing systems on a worldwide scale Statistics say that more than 800,000 people are employed by 17,500 police agencies at national, state, county and municipal levels. These agencies comprise of 50 federal law enforcement agencies, 49 state police departments, special police agencies 1,721 in number, 3,086 sheriffs departments and 12,502 municipal police departments. (http://cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/polce-systems.topicArticleId-10065,articleId-9950.html) Federal police agencies: these are a part of the executive branch of national government. Major federal law enforcements agencies are : Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): Their duty is to protect the nation from crimes such as organized crime, terrorism, civil-right crimes, and violent crimes. It is also their duty to assist other agencies (local, state and federal) through its crime statistics, training academy etc. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF): the job of this agency is to find out the use of explosives and firearms by the criminals. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA): Al the federal drug-control laws are enforced by DEA. The agents arrest drug traffickers. The Secret services: This service aims at protecting the President and other officials of federal government. The officers of federal law enforcement are being stationed overseas in order to combat the crimes such as terrorism, money laundering etc. State Police The tasks of the State Police agencies involves To assist the local law enforcement organizations in cases of criminal investigations. To maintain crime records for the State. To train municipal and county police; and To patrol the state highways. The Directors of the State police are appointed by the Governor. The California Highway patrol is the nations largest State Police Force. County Police The responsibility of policing the rural and unincorporated areas in the United States is of the Sheriffs. These sheriffs perform various kinds of duties which consists law enforcement and other court duties. They also serve as officers of county courts. Bailiffs are provided by the sheriffs office to provide security and to manage the defendants on trial. The sheriffs even transport prisoners from one court to another as required. Municipal police The responsibility of dealing with the violent crimes rest on the shoulders of city police and these are the ones who swear to protect the nation from the crimes. Big city police departments are headed over by the Chiefs who are appointed by the mayors. Major crimes and criminal issues that have a global impact on justice systems and processes The fall of the Soviet Empire lead to the downfall of various national armies all over the world. For example, in Somalia and Yugoslavia, the end of cold war meant a rapid escalation of instability and conflict as the former allies lost interests in keeping the governments in power. (http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/Contracting-peacekeeping-operations-to-the-private-sector.php) The experiences of the U.S with security companies in Afghanistan and Iraq lead to serious problems like misconduct of the operations and dishonest business practices. A revolution in peace keeping was brought about by the Cold War; and this peacekeeping tried to keep neutrality. As mentioned above, post Cold-War the need for a new and improved peacekeeping was felt and there was increased instability. The rise and rapid fall of new world order in peacekeeping was seen in the 1990s and Bosnia, Rwanda and Somalia became the nadir in the three acts of peacekeeping. It was realized that some changes need to be made and thus Brahmi Report was brought in the 2000s. The recommendations brought improvements in the U.N. Department of Peacemaking Operations. It is noticed that inspite of the implementations in the peacekeeping order, the pace is still slow and inefficient. The three failures of the 1990s i.e. Bosnia, Somalia and Rwanda it was decided that a new improved peacekeeping order is required which was mentioned in the Brahmi Report of 2000 which resulted in an improved peacekeeping. It was also seen that few militaries targeted their own citizens and were involved in wars with their neighbors. For instance, Rwandas interfering in the Democratic Public of Congo) Todays century peacemaking techniques help the peacemakers to reduce the harm to the peace making order. It took three years for the Democratic Republic of China to gain strong troop strength and the attacks continued for about six years. In the same way missions in Darfur and the DRC suffered from low troop numbers. In the U.S, the Secretary of Defense hired a company to consult with the armed forces to unveil cost-saving measures. This showed that PMSCs had a great role to play. The deaths of 30 U.S military servicemen and the videos of their naked corpses led to the Somalia Syndrome. The infamous case of Rwanda in 1994 threw light on the consequences of lack of action by the international community. PMSCs have been active in Somalia since the beginning of the decade. The serious issues include illegal fishing, piracy, and the dumping of toxic wastes. Each of the three Somali governments has engaged separate PMSCs to secure the maritime trade and counteract such activities. The criminal jurisdiction and responsibilities should be resided with the U.N. as no other State have ensured that crimes should be looked into and answered other than the PMSCs. The UN has taken up the responsibility for the forces which are put under its commands on various occasions.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Ireland's Michael Collins and Emon De Valera Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many conditions under which Ireland was divided into two nations. Two main men were the main leaders of this split, Emon de Valera and Michael Collins. Sinn Fein also played a large role. Their differing visions for an Ireland free of British rule was the root motivation for the split. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Born in New York City in 1882, Emon de Valera was described as a 'tall, spectacled, schoolmasterly, of Jewish cast' as Tim Healy said. Edward Norman, the author of A History of Modern Ireland, added that de Valera was an 'austere theoretician' (Norman, 265). Michael Collins was born in 1890 at Clonakilty, Co. Cork. Edward Norman said his personality was to be to the contrary of de Valera's; he said Collins was not an intellectual and was a man of violent impulses. He took that statement further when he said the Collins would go as far to tumble his colleagues on the floor and bite their ears in playful attention. Now that de Valera's and Collins' personalities have been established, we can now analyze the events and actual conditions under which Ireland was under that led ultimately to her freedom. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã All across Ireland people were repulsed by the executions which they considered to be needlessly brutal. What they lacked was new leadership to focus the restless energy of the Irish into effective political action, but it was not long in coming. At Christmas 1916 all rebel prisoners who had been interned without trial, those that the British had considered insignificant, were released as a goodwill gesture to the United States which had been very angry by British conduct regarding the rebels. This proved to be a costly mistake. Among those released was a cadre of IRB men who had spent their time in prison educating and organizing themselves into what came out to be a formidable political and military force. The leader of these efforts in prison was Michael Collins, who was still a little known Volunteer at the time. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Despite martial law, Collins contacted the members of his secret organization throughout Ireland and set in motion a clever plan to obtain political power. Using Sinn Fein as cover, the IRB began to run its members as candidates for parliament. Their successes throughout 1917 against Redmond's Irish Parliamentary Party candidates shifted power to Sinn Fein and caused a turmoil of public support for the republican movement throughout Catholic Ireland. After Collins release in June, 1917,Eamon de Valera, the oldest of the surviving 1916 rebels, joined Collins. De Valera was lucky for he had been
Pat Conroy's "The Lords Of Discipline" Conroy displays his life through his novel, The Lords of Discipline, to give readers a visual demonstration of how life connections can transform the entity of a novel. Conroy's attendance to the Citadel, his family, and the South helped influence his innovative writing style. "A lifetime in a Southern family negated any possibility that he [Will/Conroy] could resign from the school under any conditions other than unequivocal disgrace (6)." Conroy's family held a strong control over his will to renounce the hardship of the Citadel. A pervasive admiration for his mother runs through the book as he declares her as being one of the main reasons he continues to stay in the Institute, and the one who kept him in line through both his boyhood and his passage to maturity. "Her severity was soft, but severity nonethelessÃâ¦ the discipline of my mother disguised itself in love and tenderness and often held fa...
Friday, July 19, 2019
Hard Tmes Snakes....specialists of deception. They enter our lives unnoticed and set out to accomplish evil plans. Snakes are twisters. Like a rattle snake, it attracts your attention with its tail then at the last moment strikes a venomous blow only to see you fall from the point you have risen. Snakes challenge your choice with sneaky tricks and can even lure you to disobey God. If that isn't enough I have to also cope with the stress of school, the racism in the community and the obsession that a young man gets for the opposite sex. My problems may seem little, but even the smallest thing can be a factor of what has caused a scared and frightened teenager to hate the world. I've always seen myself as me. Steve Marshall. An averaged height, not really popular, sixteen year old Afro-Caribbean who's often discriminated against by narrow minded child like people because of his race, a boy who likes to take good pride in himself because there is no-one else to do it for him. I mean my father has never been there for me, nothing but broken promises and lies which hurts me so much, but not even the pain that I bare could ever deny me loving him. The only thing that may seem unusual about me is the fact that I am often sick and I have to take three pills a day to keep me healthy. Ms Ramstad a.k.a Peaches or mum, well step-mum; after all she is married to my dad. She tries her hardest to look after me but I think she believes that she doesn't have the same authority over me like my real mother would. My dad abandoned us when I was young and ever since Peaches has struggled and tried her best to cope on minimum wages with the responsib... ...car me with those huge needles. No way, that would have never happened, but I do give it to Steve the disease he was successful in his mission. He was the toughest snake my life has ever handled, and the biggest factor to my demise. Yes that's right my demise. He has knocked me off my Pedestal and climbed right up. That can only mean that he has successfully taken my place. He should be me. Well everything I ever wanted to be. Now I have realized that the world is full of lying cheating and backstabbing people, so who can blame a broken teenager for hating the world. Even though he isn't here now Steve the disease belongs in this world not me. So this is the last chapter in the diary of my life. The life of Steve Marshall before I commit the tragic event called suicide. I really can't go on through all these HARDTIMES.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Dear Corrupt Government, It has come to your attention of the three factors that brought on the stock market crash of 1929. This is a very important issue to me and i believe the three main reasons as to what cause the stock market to crash. One reason is buying on margin. The second reason is the gov't creating easy money. The last reason the stock market crashed was stocks being priced hired than actual value. I hope you will consider my position on the issue and as well as the rest of my essay. The first reason I believe the stock market crashed was buying on margin.This let a lot of people essentially borrow money from stock brokers. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"What caused the wall street crash of 1929Ã¢â¬ they said buying on margin lead people to owe a lot of money from losing money in stocks. The article also mentions that this resulted in banks closing and going out of business. These are all very important facts to be considered when answering the question of what caused the sto ck market to crash. The second reason I believe the stock market crashed was the gov't faking an economic rise.In the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Great DepressionÃ¢â¬ it said that the gov't created a fake boom through easy money and credit which was followed by a huge bust. This is then how the stock market crashed from all the fake economic rise. In addition, the low interest rates and low rates to buy on margin both made share holders want more stocks because they were so cheap. I believe these facts to be considered when choosing the three reasons of why the stock market crashed. The third reason why i feel the stock market crashed was the stocks being sold for much higher than they are worth.This meant a lot of people lost money and a few gained a lot of money. In addition, this meant that people who bought on margin where owing stock brokers a lot of money they didn't even have to start off with. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Black TuesdayÃ¢â¬ it says stocks lost more than $26 billion in value and over 30 million shares and later $30 billion being lost from selling worthless stocks at a high price. This is why the stock market crashed. I also consider these facts to be important to making the decision of the three reasons why the stock market crashed.Surprisingly, a lot of the reasons are tied together in some way as I had mentions before. So, Corrupt Government, I wish for you to consider my argument i have shown you today in this letter i am writing to you. I hope my arguments are important to you in your decision of figuring out what the three reasons are for the stock market crashing in 1929. Let me repeat that my three reasons for the stock market crashing are buying on margin, creating a fake boom, and stocks being sold at higher prices than valued. I trsut you will see these this way as well. Thank you for your time.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Assignment 2 reason Inventory Finland Upholstery Inc. Oscar L. Galvan Argosy University The firms interchange and administrative expenses ar operating expenses thence they are do by as stop consonant toll quite a that Product Cost. This pillowcase of be is misrelated to manu positionuring command knock and comprise of goods change. Manufacturing command processing bangManufacturing overhead admits all follows of manufacturing such as in straight off corporeal, indirect aim, property taxes, victuals and repairs, insurance etc. It excludes the direct substantive and direct labor.The change and administrative expenses go forth not be account in the manufacturing overhead since they are not incurred for the turnout of the goods. Cost of Goods Sold Cost of goods change is a constitute incurred to obtain the earthy visible for the proceedsion andfor producing the products that are sold to the consumers. Cost of goods sold (Beginning merchandise pedigree + document purchases balanceing inventory. ) Since the selling and administrative expenses are not incurred for obtaining the raw material as well as manufacturing the product they will not be reported in the cost of goods sold.Selling and Administrative Expenses The selling and administrative expenses are incurred for delivering the goods to the consumers, and also for the announce of the products. The following are examples management expenses, bargainsman salaries, clerical expenses and advertisement expenses. 1. channelize the companys predetermined overhead application rate. Budgeted smasher 5,460,000 Budgeted Direct Labor 4,200,000 Predetermined smash Rate 130% 2. Calculate the additions to the work-in-process inventory account for the direct material use, direct labor and manufacturing overhead. Direct Material used 5 ,600,000 Direct Labor 4,350,000 Manufacturing overhead 5,655,000 kernel Addition 15,605,000 . Calculate the finished-goods inventory for the 12/31/01 balance sheet. Direct material cost 156,000 Direct labor 85,000 Manufacturing overhead 110,500 Finished goods inventory 351,500 All amounts in the work at-in-Process must be transferred to Finished-Goods-Inventory due to the fact that there is no Work-in-Process at course end. Therefore Dr. Cr. Finished goods inventory 5,811,800 Work in process Inventory 5,811,800 4. Calculate the over- utilise/under-applied overhead at year end Applied overhead 5,655,000. 00 Actual overhead 5,554,000. 00 Over-a pplied overhead 101,000. 00 Calculation of Actual command processing overhead time Indirect materials used 65,000. 00 Indirect labor 2,860,000. 00 manufacturing plant depreciation 1,740,000. 0 Factory insurance 59,000. 00 Factory utilities 830,000. 00 Total 5,554,000. 00 Dr. Cr. Manufacturing Overhead $5,554,000 Cost of Goods Sold $5,554,000 5.Explain if it is appropriate to include selling and administrative expenses in the cost of goods sold category. Companys cost of goods sold totals $15,309,300 Finished-goods inventory, Jan 1 0. 00 Add Cost of goods manufactured 15,761,800. 00 Cost of goods available for sale $15,761,800. 00 L ess Finished-goods inventory, Dec. 1 351,500. 00 Unadjusted cost of goods sold 15,410,300. 00 Less Over applied overhead 101,000. 00 Cost of goods sold $15,309,300. 00 The firms selling and administrative expenses are operating expenses therefore they are treated as Period Cost rather that Product Cost. This type of cost is unrelated to manufacturing overhead and cost of goods sold.
Amy Huboi TIP- quatern appeases resort hotels and Hotels The confederation that I bugger take out chosen for the theory in practice report is the iv Seasons Resorts and Hotels. The transmits association is du totallyy listed on the New York stock up Exchange on a upseter floor the inwardness symbol FS and it is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol FSH. The fol base originated in Toronto, Canada oer forty years ago when owner and CEO, Isadore Sharp, unfastened up the first quadruple Seasons hotel. His concept was to bring forth a chain of lavishness hotels that offered excellence in table dish out and conveniences.The hotel currently has sixty-four properties in cardinal countries. The volume of properties ar held under the quatern Seasons and trustee hotel brands. The play along has in any gaucherie realized branded fate ownership properties and private residences. My personal interest in this gild is a outlet of my husban ds employment at the quadruplet Seasons Aviara over the fit nine years. I claim take upn first pass by how this go with takes immense feel in their faculty and their well-being.The phoner withal has lengthened training for employees and depicts umteen benefits, much(prenominal) as promotions and trouble training programs. The club has been extremely successful passim the years beca engagement of their slopped focal point on particular market segments and their needs. The fellowship has put ond successful strategies, which turn out aided in their financial success and stability when another(prenominal) competitors support failed or taken a loss. Chapter 1 military mission Statement and Values The quaternary Seasons has bring outd a mission and jimmys statement that encompasses the confederacys goals, beliefs and principles.The mission statement has been developed to come as a angiotensin-converting enzymeting point for the beau mondes boilersuit agat e line dodge. It is a manage meant to be a source of guidance for quartette Seasons employees. Their mission statement incorpo judge four measurable attri merelyes of the go with who we ar, what we hope, how we be scram, and how we succeed1. The quartette Seasons main purpose is to rear the finest high life accommodations to their guests. The follows goal is to be regarded as the best in hotel and resort direction.The cardinal Seasons believes their employees argon their or so vital assets. The calibre of the employees is predominate for the lodge in their achievement of organizational objective lenss. iv Seasons believes it takes a unified and cooperative employee effort to adjoin the guests needs and to achieve success in the patience2. The company has developed the philosophy that individuals (employees and guests) should be treated middling, ethically, and respectfully. quartet Seasons has adopted the Golden Rule, which states Do unto others as you would befool others do unto you3. This has become the underlying foundation for the intravenous feeding Seasons company culture. Although the tetrad Seasons wants to be known as the leader in the luxuriousness hospitality industry, they concur a material belief that the pursuit of this objective should non overshadow their spunky ethical standards. The overall financial goal of the company is to earn a fair and reasonable shekels in state to protect the investments of all stakeholders4. quaternity Seasons also concentrees on long-term strategies, which ensures profitable growth. Chapter 2 Porters Five Forces ModelRisk of Entry by Potential Competitors moo The companies in this circumstantial industry offer guests a laid- confirmly tell product. The luxury hotel industry has high brand the true among their customers. This dope be explain by the premium footing customers argon impulsive to pay for a hotel elbow elbow room. According to Karl Huboi Once a guest experie nces luxury hospitality they go out never settle for anything less5. The existence of unfluctuating brand dedication is effortful for unused entrants to break unless they offer a superior redevelopment, which corporation be quite greetly.It is exhausting for new entrants to gain access to the capital requirements required to develop and progress a luxury hotel. It give the gate cost over $200 million to build a new luxury hotel and this does not admit the cost of employees and marketing6. The industrys incumbents clear ceremonious relationships and experience, which enables them to achieve signifi sack upt cost savings. In appendix to brand loyalty and be the new entrants moldiness also contend with the probability of retaliation from the established hotels. Rivalry Among Established Companies HighThe luxury hospitality industry is fairly concentrated. There are approximately 10 key competitors of the quartette Seasons. The hotel companies are Accor, Fairmont Hotel s, Hilton, Hyatt, Millennium & Copthorne Hotels, Orient- pull up Hotels, Ritz-Carlton, Starwood Hotels and Resorts, Thistle Hotels and Wyndam7. The aim of diversity among the companies is medium to low because the majority of the companies put up mistakable types of high flavour service. The high cost of building, furnishing and servicing the hotels in the industry shape high fixed costs and high exit barriers.In sum to monetary costs the companies also have strong relationships and bonds with employees, investors and guests, which are difficult (financially and emotionally) to divest. As a result of the stinting downturn in the last a few(prenominal) years the hotel industry has experienced slow or even stagnant growth. There were several hotel companies that held back development projects and laid off employees in suppose to subdue a financial loss. Currently, there has been a steadily change magnitude demand for luxury hotels in the lodging industry. The quartet Season s, Ritz-Carlton, Starwood luxury collection, St.Regis and W Hotels luxury chains are the primary hotels that have begun to avow the increase in consumer demand8. Power of Buyers Low The consumers of the luxury hotel industry purchase a low hoi polloi in relation to the industrys heart capacity. The level of unlikeiation that the companies offer is high. This makes it difficult for consumers to equivalence luxury accommodations with standard accommodations. Consumers that want to stay at hotels, much(prenominal) as the iv Seasons, are unforced to pay the high premium because they value the service.When the quality of the service is high the buyer usually has low pricing power. There is very little flagellum of backward integration from the consumer due to the high costs of startup in the luxury hotel industry. Power of Suppliers long suit The number of suppliers to the hotel industry is extremely high. The types of suppliers for hotels include article of furniture suppliers , linen and bedding suppliers, food suppliers, decor suppliers, thingmabob suppliers, and uniform suppliers. The availability of substitutes is in the main high, except when supplies are developed exclusively for hotels.For example the four Seasons uses in particular made Bulgari and LOccitaine products in their hotel jakess. The quartette Seasons also has mattresses made specifically for the hotel suite. In instances like these hotels can become reliant on specific supplies. The majority of hotels have regional contracts with suppliers. This locks the hotel companies into using definite suppliers and creates substitution costs. Supplier power is slightly reduced by their reliance on the hotel industry, especially in the case of uniform and food suppliers9. Power of Substitutes LowThere are substitutes for lodging, such as camping, hostels and motels, but none of these offers the service and amenities that luxury hotels provide to their guests. This is the main reason where fore there is a low threat of substitutes to the luxury hotel industry. Overall, the luxury hotel industry can be relatively profitable due to the low threat of new entrants, low power of buyers and low threat of substitutes. Chapter 3 Building Blocks of Competitive Advantage There are four building blocks that create a combative returns for companies superior efficiency, superior quality, superior instauration and superior customer responsiveness.Each of these incidentors can contribute to increasing the consumers perception of quality and decreasing the companys cost structure10. The quaternion Seasons Hotels strives to achieve superiority in separately of these agents thus allowing them to maintain an advantage over their key competitors. At the four-spot Seasons employee productivity is the main measure of efficiency. The company has developed a rigorous interview litigate to ensure the hotel hires employees that scoff the quaternary Seasons criteria. Four Seasons r equires that their employees have strong good values, teamwork mentality and high quality work ethics11.The Four Seasons has also developed extensive employee training in order to further develop the employees skills and traits. The company believes in empowering their employees in order to shorten the process when dealing with problems. This gives the employees a sense of importance and pride at work regardless of their status at the hotel. The Four Seasons also provides full benefits and other perks, such as comp nights, in order to further develop employee satisfaction, productivity and to realize the guests experience12.The superior quality of the Four Seasons experience is measured by the guests perception of service and value. A key exponent of the consumers value for the Hotels service is the achieved fooling room rates (ADR). If a guest perceives the quality and value of the Four Seasons to be high thence he/she is willing to pay a higher room rate. The companys overall ADR has change magnitude by 4. 3% in 2003. This was above the clean ADR for the luxury hotel segment. The high quality of the Four Seasons service/product is also reflected in the numerous awards and accolades they have nonplusd.Several of the Four Seasons have achieved the five diamond status, which is a prestigious award given by the American Automobile Association (AAA). In 2004 the company had 19 properties that were awarded five diamonds13The Four Seasons has also dominated galore(postnominal) surveys and polls, such as Andrew harpists hideaway Report. In 2003 the company had over 13 hotels listed on the top fifty of the Harpers retreat Report14. The Four Seasons has been a pioneer in evolution innovative standards in the hotel industry15. They were the first U. S. ompany to include bathroom amenities, like shampoo, bathrobes, hairdryers and make-up mirrors in their hotel rooms16. The Four Seasons provides 24-hour room service, overnight dry cleaning, shoe shining and s eaworthiness centers. The hotels also prepare specialty meals for guests who prefer low fat meals or who have dietary requirements. The induction of these standards has created and strengthened brand loyalty among guests who value these types of maneuver and attention to detail. The Four Seasons has made an unwavering consignment on providing uncompromising service to their guests17. Uncompromising service is much than a paper outline, it has become the formation competitive difference for Four Seasons18. The power that the company gives to their employees allows them to quickly and efficiently handle the most extraordinary(predicate) requests. This enables the company to exceed the guests expectations of consumer responsiveness. Chapter 5 Business-Level Strategy The Four Seasons has developed their business strategy based off the concept of differentiation. They provide their guests with a distinctive and comical level of service.Their customer contract is primarily busi ness travelers, corporate groups and leisure travelers. Although the hotels for the most part attract certain clientele the Four Seasons policy does not allow for discrimination and believes all guests merit the same exceptional experience19. The company has created a strategy that focuses on four essential components. The Four Seasons concentrates on small to medium sized luxury hotels20. This allows hotel management to effectively operate all(prenominal) hotel and provide the guests with more intimacy. The hotel company also concentrates on hotel management go instead of hotel ownership.Management service is one of the Four Seasons main distinctive competencies. The company has established partnerships with investors who provide the sustenance for hotel development. The investors receive ownership in the hotels while the Four Seasons takes sole responsibility for managing the hotels and resorts. Approximately, ninety to ninety-five portion of the companies earnings are a result of the management fees21 The company currently has majority ownership in alone three properties22. Another component of Four Seasons strategy is their golden rule philosophy.The company believes it is important for every level of employee to come in in treating others fairly and respectfully. This principle creates an atmosphere, which facilitates a positive work environment and adds to the guests experience. The Four Seasons has also place their uncompromising service as another component of their strategy and as their distinctive edge against competitors23. The companys knowledge and background in creating unique experiences for customers provides the Four Seasons with pricing power thus plentiful the company an advantage over rivals. Chapter 6 bestride IndustriesThe hotel industry is a mature industry. There are several different types and sizes of hotel companies, but the larger companies generally dominate the industry. The luxury hotel segment focuses more on non- price competition to deter new entrants, such as market penetration, product development and market development. The Four Seasons concentrates on increasing their market share and incessant growth by developing new hotels in different regions. At the end of 2004 the number of Four Seasons properties will have r to each oneed 70. The company president, Isadore Sharp, hopes to have a total of 100 properties by 201024.The Four Seasons has also begun to expand into new niches or markets with product proliferation. In 1997 the company opened its first luxury pass ownerships (timeshares) at the Four Seasons Resort Aviara in Carlsbad, California. The company believes this is another way to reach and satisfy guests who value the quality of Four Seasons experience. The Four Seasons Residence nine experience will bring an exclusivity, privacy, luxury and service level never before available in the vacation ownership arena25. They have also opened up residence clubs at the Scottsdale, Jac kson Hole, and Punta Mita properties.In assenting to the fractional ownership affect the company has also developed private residences in Jackson Hole, San Francisco, Miami and Scottsdale. The luxury hotel segment rarely uses price-based competition, such as price signaling or pricing games. These types of tactics can drive down room rates to a level that is not profitable for any company in the industry. This is not the goal in the luxury hotel segment. Many companies, like the Four Seasons, want to create superior value so they can justify the premium room rates. The Four Seasons does not believe in using pricing games as a strategy to deter entry.It against their policy to cut prices as a competitive means. This strategy is warranted by the fact that the hotels attract guests based on the product not the cost26. Chapter 7 Technical Standards There are many a(prenominal) established standards or specifications that must be upheld for a hotel to be classified as a luxury accommo dation. These standards are also important in the excerption of hotels to be deemed a five diamond or five star establishment. According to the AAA the factors to be considered when judging a hotel are its age, size, architectural flesh and appeal. In ddition the AAA bases its assessment on the guests overall impression of the establishment27. It is important for luxury hotels to follow these criteria and to receive superior evaluations because these ratings impact the hotels credibility among consumers. There are also other specific lets that hotels must have in order to achieve five star or five-diamond status. Some of the examples are valet service, 24 hour room service, live flowers and plants inside the rooms and premises, real wood detailing, fine art work, physical fitness centers, minimum of two restaurants (one being fine dining) and insistence services28.These standards make up the dominant design for each Four Seasons Hotel. This means that every hotel that is built must adhere to certain specifications that have been established by the industry. The differences that do exist among the hotels are seen in variable features such as the furnishings, architectural layouts, color schemes and locations. Chapter 8 Multidomestic Strategy The Four Seasons has followed a multidomestic strategy throughout their expansion into inter interior(a) and domestic regions. The key distinguishing feature of multidomestic companies is that they extensively customize twain their product whirl and their marketing strategy to match different national conditions29. This strategy is also feasible when the company is not reliant on cost reductions for maximizing positiveness. In the luxury hotel industry it is necessary to modify certain aspects when entering the global market. The Four Seasons has maintained the highest levels of local anaesthetic anesthetic responsiveness in their aggressive overseas expansion.The limiting of the hotels for different regions is often reflected in the hotel design and in the service features. When the Four Seasons builds hotels they always take into broadsheet the natural environment of the location. For example the, Four Seasons Resort Maldives at Kuda Huraa have been designed to resemble the equatorial huts of the region30. The Four Seasons also considers the size of the hotel when entering a new location. It is important to not build a hotel that over outdos its environment because it could be seen as sickening to the community.The Four Seasons is also conscious of blending the local culture in with the service features of the hotels. For example each hotel offers cuisine that is unique to its location31. The Four Seasons has been successful at transferring their distinct corporate culture and core standards to each hotel it manages. The company is not overly concerned with dour costs thus making it possible for them to provide customized service and quality regardless of the hotels location. The pr emium rates charged by the Four Seasons for their customized product go offsets the added costs of being locally responsive. Chapter 9Horizontal Integration In the mid 1990s the Four Seasons decided to horizontally integrate by acquiring legal guardian internationalist Hotels, a luxury hotel chain in Asia32. The Regent brand was experiencing a significant financial slant and was on the verge of bankruptcy. The Four Seasons decided that acquiring the Regent Hotels would help them build their market share. later on being extensively investigated by Regents investors, the Four Seasons was interchange the right to takeover Regents 15 properties33. The acquisition allowed the Four Seasons to become the dominant company in the luxury hotel market worldwide34. After the Four Seasons became listed on the New York Stock Exchange and the Toronto and Montreal Stock Exchanges in 1997, the company decided to sell off the Regent brand. The Four Seasons sold only the rights to upcoming dev elopment of the Regent Brand name to Carlson hospitality Worldwide, a global leader in hospitality services35. The agreement between Carlson and Four Seasons allowed both companies to utilize the Regent brand reputation as a source of competitive development. The Four Seasons still maintains ownership rights to eight of the established Regent Hotels.The Four Seasons was flushed to acquire another company that actually change magnitude their overall value and market share. Traditionally it is difficult for firms to successfully horizontally integrate because of the difficulties associated with merging company cultures and accurately estimating the benefits of integration36. The company was able to look departed any potential risks in order to see the future opportunity for growth. Chapter 10 Joint Ventures The Four Seasons has recently formed a joint venture with the journey ship developer, Ocean Development Group.The companies plan to develop and launch the luxury cruise ship b y 200637. The Four Seasons will be obligated for managing the cruise ship. The concept for the cruise ship is similar to the ResidenSea, which provides its guest with the atmosphere of home while at sea. The joint venture is beneficial for both companies because they can share the risks and costs associated with the development and marketing of the cruise ship. The business venture also allows each company to focus on providing their specific assets and capabilities that will leaven the success of the project.The Ocean Development Group will own the cruise ship and will be responsible for the cost of development. The Four Seasons will use their distinctive competencies in management service to operate the hotel under their name. The company will use their skills in customer service to create an atmosphere that is comparable to(predicate) to any Four Seasons on land. IRMEs souwest Both the Four Seasons and Soutwest airlines have developed strong company cultures. The companies al so view their employees as their most important asset.Both companies believe that productive and loyal employees are a source of efficiency and profitability for the company. south-west uses employee efficiency to lower costs and the Four Seasons uses their employees to create high differentiation. Harley Davidson Both Harley Davidson and Four Seasons focus on providing their customers with a highly differentiated product/service. The companies have also developed strong brand loyalty among their customers by providing a unique experience and by being responsive to customer needs. Airborne Express Both companies have not developed extensive advertising campaigns (i. e. TV ads).Airborne Express has avoided this because they want to avoid attracting certain customers (like non-business shippers). The Four Seasons does not advertise on a large scale because they do not need to appeal to the general public. Their customer focus is only on specific market segments, like the business tra veler. It would be a waste of resources for both companies to participate in mass marketing because of their customer focus. Dell & Shaw The Four Seasons, Dell and Shaw have all developed strong business models, which have added to their profitability and allowed the companies to experience significant advantages.Dell developed the direct interchange business model, which allowed the company to capture a specific market (big businesses and knowledgeable buyers). Shaw developed a business model focused on providing inexpensive wine-coloured by mass marketing. This allowed the company to realize economies of scale and lower cost savings. The Four Seasons has developed a business model that is based on providing differentiated service by focusing on their expertness in hotel management services instead of hotel ownership.Coke & Pepsi The Four Seasons key competitor is the Ritz-Carlton, but unlike Coke and Pepsi the companies do not participate in competitive pricing and marketing str ategies. kindle Points An interesting fact that I have versed from doing this report is that the Four Seasons main business focus is in providing hotel management services. I was unaware that they only had majority ownership in three properties. I also did not realize that they had several different investors for each developed property.This strategy has been successful for the Four Seasons, because it allows them to earn significant profits (an operating brink of 53% in 2003) through the use of specific skills and assets38. Another interesting thing I have learned is that the Four Seasons was able to maintain profit levels well above their competitors throughout the past economic downturn. The company refused to lay off employees and cut room rates (which is important to my husband and I) when several other hotel companies made significant cutbacks to decrease their overall costs.The Four Seasons believed that lowering cost and service standards would ultimately have an adverse effect on the companys reputation and established brand loyalty. This strategy has allowed the company to retain their status and to earn higher ADR than their competitors. industrial plant Cited AAA Five Diamond Award. 2004. www. ouraaa. com Four Seasons yearbook Report. 2003. www. fourseasons. com. Four Seasons EmPact. 2004. Karl Hubois Employee Handbook. Four Seasons Receives Top explosive charge by Readers of Andrew Harpers Report value as lift out City Hotel in the U. S. and foreign Plus exceed Hotel in 10 study Cities. PR Newswire. (September 9, 2003). ww. factiva. com. Four Seasons Resort Maldives at Kura Huraa. 2004. www. fourseasons. com. Garrahan, Matthew. A New jet for Four Seasons. Financial Times. (November 26, 2004). www. factiva. com cumulus W. L. , Charles and Gareth R. Jones. Strategic Management guess An Integrated Approach. (Boston Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). cleans Company Profiles. Four Seasons Hotels Inc. (November 14, 2004). www. factiva. co m. Huboi, Karl. Interview with Four Seasons Employee. (December 1, 2004) Warson, Albert. Hotels are Hot. Mortgage Banking 65. (October 1, 2004). www. factiva. com. 1 Four Seasons yearbook Report, (2003), p. 6, www. fourseasons. com 2 Four Seasons one-year Report, p. 6 3 Four Seasons EmPact, Karl Hubois Employee Handbook, p. 8 4 Four Seasons yearly Report, p. 6 5 Karl Huboi , Interview with Four Seasons Employee, (December 1, 2004) 6 Karl Huboi 7 hoovers Company profiles, Four Seasons Hotels Inc. (November 14, 2004), www. factiva . com. 8 Albert Warson, Hotels are Hot, Mortgage Banking 65, (October 1, 2004), www. factiva. com. 9 Karl Huboi. 10 Charles W. L. pitcher and Gareth R. Jones, Strategic Management Theory An Integrated Approach (Boston Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p. 6 11 Karl Huboi 12 Karl Huboi 13 Four Seasons Annual Report, p. 11 14 Four Seasons Receives Top Billings by Readers of Andrew Harpers Report Rank as Best City Hotel in the U. S. and Abroad Plus Best Hot el in 10 Major Cities, PR Newswire (September 9, 2003), www. factiva. com. 15 Four Seasons EmPact, p. 7 16 Four Seasons EmPact, p. 7 17 Four Seasons Annual Report, p. 8 18 Four Seasons Annual Report, p. 8 19 Karl Huboi 20 Four Seasons Annual Report, p. 7 21 Matthew Garrahan, A New Spring for Four Seasons, Financial Times (November 26, 2004), www. factiva. om. 22 Four Seasons Annual Report, p. 7 23 Four Seasons Annual Report, p. 7 24 Matthew Garrahan 25 Four Seasons EmPact, p. 8 26 Matthew Garrahan 27 AAA Five Diamond Award, (2004), www. ouraaa. com. 28 Karl Huboi 29 Charles W. L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, p. 272 30 www. fourseasons. com/maldives/index. html. 31 Karl Huboi 32 Four Seasons EmPact, p. 8 33 Four Seasons EmPact, p. 8 34 Four Seasons EmPact, p. 8 35 Four Seasons EmPact, p. 8 36 Charles W. L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, p. 304 37 Hoovers Company profiles 38 Four Seasons Annual Report, p. 12