Monday, September 30, 2019
For the past years in college, I have faced situations that needed intelligent decisions. Though many times I have considered the possible consequences, nothing could prepare me when I faced them. In the end I always realize that I have made the wrong decisions, and I could not turn back time to change them. However, these experiences taught me lots of things that helped me to become a better decision maker. I admit that there is a part of me that always tries to avoid making the boldest decisions, despite the fact that they are the safest (Arsham, 1994), as it appears risky to me. Moreover, there were times when these decisions are nerve-racking and difficult and I was often left scared to deal with the outcome. At one point in my life, I experienced losing friends who have been with me for years. I did not notice that slowly they were pushing me down despite our friendship. And even if this one person who I just met for a few months warned me about how my Ã¢â¬ËfriendsÃ¢â¬â¢ back-stabbed me, I did not believe her because I knew my friends better, or so I thought. It was hard for me to accept that they, out of envy, would tell bad things about me. I have confided in them, my life was an open book to them, and I trusted them with my whole life. Then one day, all of their hate words reached me. I was in shock, because my friends treated me well whenever I am around. I was in a state of denial for a few weeks. During those weeks, I was like another person. I was apathetic and unemotional (Messina, J, and C. Messina, 2007). It was like those years of friendship that we have built for almost three years were broken in just a few days. Later on I was angry at them. And then I realized that my anger was a reaction for being hurt and insulted (Richmond, 2008). The hardest part was turning my back on them because I knew I do not deserve to be friends with persons who would deliberately say bad things about me. It was really a difficult decision, because somehow I have treasured those moments when we were genuinely happy with each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company. What made it more difficult was seeing them in places where we have hang out before. Seeing them always reminded me how I was not careful in choosing people who would be a part of me and my life. Up to this day I am still hurt when I think about them. But the good thing is that I became better at choosing friends. I do not judge somebody easily, but since then I have found friends who are better than best. And that is enough for me. References Arsham, H. (1994). Leadership decision making. Retrieved December 15, 2008, from http://home. ubalt. edu/ntsbarsh/opre640/partXIII. htm Messina, J. J. , and C. Messina. (2007). Tools for handling loss. Coping. org. Retrieved December 15, 2008, from http://www. coping. org/grief/denial. htm
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Direct marketing is a channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses and nonprofits organizations to communicate straight to the customer, with advertising techniques that can include Cell Phone Text messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising. Direct marketing messages emphasize a focus on the customer, data, and accountability. Characteristics that distinguish direct marketing are: 1. Marketing messages are addressed directly to the customer and/or customers. Direct marketing relies on being able to address the members of a target market. Addressability comes in a variety of forms including email addresses, mobile phone numbers, Web browser cookies, fax numbers and postal addresses. 2. Direct marketing seeks to drive a specific Ã¢â¬Å"call to action.Ã¢â¬ For example, an advertisement may ask the prospect to call a freephone number or click on a link to a website. 3. Direct marketing emphasizes trackable, measurable responses from customers Ã¢â¬â regardless of medium. Direct marketing is practiced by businesses of all sizes Ã¢â¬â from the smallest start-up to the leaders on the Fortune 500. A well-executed direct advertising campaign can prove a positive return on investment by showing how many potential customers responded to a clear call-to-action. General advertising eschews calls-for-action in favor of messages that try to build prospectsÃ¢â¬â¢ emotional awareness or engagement with a brand. Even well-designed general advertisements rarely can prove their impact on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom line. A recent study by the Direct Marketing Association reports that in 2010, marketers Ã¢â¬â commercial and nonprofit Ã¢â¬â spent $153.3 billion on direct marketing, which accounted for 54.2% of all ad expenditures in the United States. Measured against total US sales, these advertising expenditures generated approximately $1.798 trillion in incremental sales. In 2010, direct marketing accounted for 8.3% of total US gross domestic product. Also in 2010, there were 1.4 million direct marketing employees in the US. Their collective sales efforts directly supported 8.4 million other jobs, accounting for a total of 9.8 million US jobs. Direct marketing is attractive to many marketers because its positive results can be measured directly. For example, if a marketer sends out 1,000 solicitations by mail and 100 respond to the promotion, the marketer can say with confidence that campaign led directly to 10% direct responses. This metric is known as the Ã¢â¬Ëresponse rate,Ã¢â¬â¢ and it is one of many clearly quantifiable success metrics employed by direct marketers. In contrast, general advertising uses indirect measurements, such as awareness or engagement, since there is no direct response from a consumer. Measurement of results is a fundamental element in successful direct marketing. The Internet has made it easier for marketing managers to measure the results of a campaign. This is often achieved by using a specific website landing page directly relating to the promotional material. A call to action will ask the customer to visit the landing page, and the effectiveness of the campaign can be measured by taking the number of promotional messages distributed (e.g., 1,000) and dividing it by the number of responses (people visiting the unique website page). Another way to measure the results is to compare the projected sales or generated leads for a given term with the actual sales or leads after a direct advertising campaign. While many marketers recognize the financial benefits of increasing targeted awareness, some direct marketing efforts using particular media have been criticized for generating poor quality leads, either due to poor message strategy or because of poorly compiled demographic databases. This poses a problem for marketers and consumers alike, as advertisers do not wish to waste money on communicating with consumers not interested in their products. Some of these concerns have been addressed by direct marketers by the use of individual Ã¢â¬Å"opt-outÃ¢â¬ lists, variable printing, and better-targeted list practices. Additionally, in order to avoid unwanted mailings, members of the marketing industry have established preference services that give customers more control over the marketing communications they receive in the mail. The term Ã¢â¬Å"junk mail,Ã¢â¬ referring to unsolicited commercial ads delivered via post office or directly deposited in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ mail boxes, can be traced back to 1954. The term Ã¢â¬Å"spam,Ã¢â¬ meaning Ã¢â¬Å"unsolicited commercial e-mail,Ã¢â¬ can be traced back to March 31, 1993, although in its first few months it merely referred to inadvertently posting a message so many times on UseNet that the repetitions effectively drowned out the normal flow of conversation. To address the concerns of unwanted emails or spam, in 2003, The US Congress enacted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to curb unwanted email messages. Can-Spam gives recipients the ability to stop unwanted emails, and set out tough penalties for violations. Additionally, ISPs and email service providers have developed increasingly effective Email Filtering programs. These filters can interfere with the delivery of email marketing campaigns, even if the person has subscribed to receive them, as legitimate email marketing can possess the same hallmarks as spam. There are a range of email service providers that provide services for legitimate opt-in emailers to avoid being classified as spam. Consumers have expressed concerns about the privacy and environmental implications of direct marketing. In response to consumer demand and increasing business pressure to increase the effectiveness of reaching the right customer with direct marketing, companies specialize in targeted direct advertising to great effect, reducing advertising budget waste and increasing the effectiveness of delivering a marketing message with better geo-demography information, delivering the advertising message to only the customers interested in the product, service, or event on offer. Additionally, members of the advertising industry have been working to adopt stricter codes regarding online targeted advertising. Any medium that can be used to deliver a communication to a customer can be employed in direct marketing, including: Email Marketing Sending marketing messages through email or Emailmarketing is one of the most widely used direct-marketing methods. One reason for email marketingÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity is that it is relatively inexpensive to design, test, and send an email message. It also allows marketers to deliver messages around the clock, and to accurately measure responses. Online Tools With the expansion of digital technology and tools, direct marketing is increasingly taking place through online channels. Most online advertising is delivered to a focused group of customers and has a trackable response. * Display Ads are interactive ads that appear on the Web next to content on Web pages or Web services. Formats include static banners, pop ups, videos, and floating units. Customers can click on the ad to respond directly to the message or to find more detailed information. According to research by eMarketer, expenditures on online display ads rose 24.5% between 2010 and 2011. * Search: 49% of US spending on Internet ads goes to search, in which advertisers pay for prominent placement among listings in search engines whenever a potential customer enters a relevant search term, allowing ads to be delivered to customers based upon their already-indicated search criteria.This paid placement industry generates more than $10 billion dollars for search companies. Marketers also use search engine optimization to drive traffic to their sites. * Social Media Sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, also provide opportunities for direct marketers to communicate directly with customers by creating content to which customers can respond. Mobile Through mobile marketing, marketers engage with prospective customers and donors in an interactive manner through a mobile device or network, such as a cellphone, smartphone, or tablet. Types of mobile marketing messages include: SMS: (short message service) Ã¢â¬â marketing communications are sent in the form of text messages, also known as texting. MMS: (multi-media message service) Ã¢â¬â These messages use elements such as images, video, and audio; Mobile Applications: Smartphone-based mobile apps contain several types of messages. Push Notifications are direct messages sent to a user either automatically or as part of a campaign. They include transactional, marketing, geo-based, and more. Rich Push Notifications are full HTML Push Notifications. Mobile apps also contain Interactive ads that appear inside the mobile application or app; Location-Based Marketing: marketing messages delivered directly to a mobile device based on the userÃ¢â¬â¢s location; QR Codes (quick-response barcodes): This is a type of 2D barcode with an encoded link that can be accessed from a smartphone. This technology is increasingly being used for everything from special offers to product information. Mobile Banner Ads: Like standard banner ads for desktop Web pages but smaller to fit on mobile screens and run on the mobile content network Direct Mail The term Ã¢â¬Å"direct mailÃ¢â¬ is used to refer to communications sent to potential customers or donors via the postal service and other delivery services. Direct mail is sent to customers based on criteria such as age, income, location, profession, buying pattern, etc. Direct mail includes advertising circulars, catalogs, free-trial CDs, pre-approved credit card applications, and other unsolicited merchandising invitations delivered by mail to homes and businesses. Bulk mailings are a particularly popular method of promotion for businesses operating in the financial services, home computer, and travel and tourism industries. In many developed countries, direct mail represents such a significant amount of the total volume of mail that special rate classes have been established. In the United States and United Kingdom, for example, there are bulk mail rates that enable marketers to send mail at rates that are substantially lower than regular first-class rates. In order to qualify for these rates, marketers must format and sort the mail in particular ways Ã¢â¬â which reduces the handling (and therefore costs) required by the postal service. In the US, marketers send over 90 billion pieces of direct mail per year. Advertisers often refine direct mail practices into targeted mailing, in which mail is sent out following database analysis to select recipients considered most likely to respond positively. For example, a person who has demonstrated an interest in golf may receive direct mail for golf-related products or perhaps for goods and services that are appropriate for golfers. This use of database analysis is a type of database marketing. The United States Postal Service calls this form of mail Ã¢â¬Å"advertising mailÃ¢â¬ (admail for short). Telemarketing Another common form of direct marketing is telemarketing, in which marketers contact customers by phone. The primary benefit to businesses is increased lead generation, which helps businesses increase sales volume and customer base. The most successful telemarketing service providers focus on generating more Ã¢â¬Å"qualifiedÃ¢â¬ leads that have a higher probability of getting converted into actual sales. The National Do Not Call Registry was created in 2003 to offer consumers a choice whether to receive telemarketing calls at home. The FTC created the National Do Not Call Registry after a comprehensive review of the Telemarketing Sales Rule (TSR). The do-not-call provisions of the TSR cover any plan, program, or campaign to sell goods or services through interstate phone calls. The provisions do not cover calls from political organizations, charities, telephone surveyors, or companies with which a customer has an existing business relationship. Canada has its own National Do Not Call List (DNCL). In other countries it is voluntary, such as the New Zealand Name Removal Service. Voicemail Marketing Voicemail marketing emerged out of the market prevalence of personal voice mailboxes, and business voicemail systems. Voicemail marketing presented a cost effective means by which to reach people directly, by voice. Abuse of consumer marketing applications of voicemail marketing resulted in an abundance of Ã¢â¬Å"voice-spam,Ã¢â¬ and prompted many jurisdictions to pass laws regulating consumer voicemail marketing. More recently, businesses have utilized guided voicemail (an application where pre-recorded voicemails are guided by live callers) to accomplish personalized business-to-business marketing formerly reserved for telemarketing. Because guided voicemail is used to contact only businesses, it is exempt from Do Not Call regulations in place for other forms of voicemail marketing. Voicemail courier is a similar form of voicemail marketing with both business-to-business and business-to-consumer applications. Broadcast Faxing Broadcast faxing, in which faxes are sent to multiple recipients, is now less common than in the past. This is partly due to laws in the United States and elsewhere which regulate its use for consumer marketing. In 2005, President Bush signed into law S. 714, the Junk Fax Prevention Act of 2005 (JFPA), which allows marketers to send commercial faxes to those with whom they have an established business relationship (EBR), but imposes some new requirements. These requirements include providing an opt-out notice on the first page of faxes and establishing a system to accept opt-outs at any time of the day. Fax senders must begin complying with these new requirements, which are described in this fact sheet. Roughly 2% of direct marketers use fax, mostly for business-to-business marketing campaigns. Also, due to the popularity of a variety of digital communication methods, the overall use of faxes is less than in the past. Couponing Couponing is used in print and digital media to elicit a response from the reader. An example is a coupon which the reader receives through the mail and takes to a storeÃ¢â¬â¢s check-out counter to receive a discount. Digital Coupons: Manufacturers and retailers make coupons available online for electronic orders that can be downloaded and printed. Digital coupons are available on company websites, social media outlets, texts, and email alerts. There are an increasing number of mobile phone applications offering digital coupons for direct use. Daily Deal Sites offer local and online deals each day, and are becoming increasingly popular. Customers sign up to receive notice of discounts and offers, which are sent daily by email. Purchases are often made using a special coupon code or promotional code. The largest of these sites, Groupon, has over 83 million subscribers. Direct Response TV Direct marketing via television (commonly referred to as DRTV) has two basic forms: long form (usually half-hour or hour-long segments that explain a product in detail and are commonly referred to as infomercials) and short form, which refers to typical 30-second or 60-second commercials that ask viewers for an immediate response (typically to call a phone number on screen or go to a website). TV-response marketing Ã¢â¬â i.e. infomercials Ã¢â¬â can be considered a form of direct marketing, since responses are in the form of calls to telephone numbers given on-air. This allows marketers to reasonably conclude that the calls are due to a particular campaign, and enables them to obtain customersÃ¢â¬â¢ phone numbers as targets for telemarketing. One of the most famous DRTV commercials was for Ginsu Knives by Ginsu Products, Inc. of RI. Several aspects of ad, such as its use of adding items to the offer and the guarantee of satisfaction were much copied, and came to be considered part of the formula for success with short-form direct-response TV ads (DRTV) Direct Response Radio In direct response radio, ads contain a call to action with a specific tracking mechanism. Often, this tracking mechanism is a Ã¢â¬Å"call nowÃ¢â¬ prompt with a toll-free phone number or a unique Web URL. Results of the ad can be tracked in terms of calls, orders, customers, leads, sales, revenue, and profits that result from the airing of those ads. Insert Media Another form of direct marketing, insert media are marketing materials that are inserted into other communications, such as a catalog, newspaper, magazine, package, or bill. Coop or shared mail, where marketing offers from several companies are delivered via a single envelope, is also considered insert media. Out-of-Home Out of home direct marketing refers to a wide array of media designed to reach the consumer outside the home, including transit, bus shelters, bus benches, aerials, airports, in-flight, in-store, movies, college campus/high schools, hotels, shopping malls, sport facilities, stadiums, taxis Ã¢â¬â that contain a call-to-action for the customer to respond. Direct Response Magazines and Newspapers Magazine and newspaper ads often include a direct response call-to-action, such as a toll-free number, a coupon redeemable at a brick-and-mortar store, or a QR code that can be scanned by a mobile device Ã¢â¬â these methods are all forms of direct marketing, because they elicit a direct and measurable action from the customer. Direct Selling Direct selling is the sale of products by face-to-face contact with the customer, either by having salespeople approach potential customers in person, or through indirect means such as Tupperware parties. Grassroots/Community Marketing The door-to-door distribution of flyers and leaflets within a local community is a business-to-consumer form of direct marketing used extensively by restaurants, fast food companies, and many other business focusing on a local catchment. Similar to direct mail marketing, this method is targeted purely by area and community, and costs a fraction of the amount of a mailshot, since it is not necessary to purchase stamps, envelopes, or address lists with the names of home occupants.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Course of Action for Owens Corning - Essay Example This meant the company had to develop new IS capabilities and also to plan for a strong IS human resources management. It was also found that when the staffs were getting trained in SAP their requirements outside was very attractive and people were moving out of the company. Ã At the planned implementation time, the first release was done - October 1995. Second and third releases identified training as a major lacuna during the implementation phase which cost them quite some time and efforts. Not just teaching the computers and PC operation but also processes that are being adopted by the company. Release 4 was the SAP R/3 roll out at the Roof and Asphalt plants a total of 140 units where this was to be switched on by Mar 1997. This was to be followed closely by the other units of insulation and composites of North America. But then there were lots of issues relating to bugs in SAP, attrition among people and a swift implementation of switching it all on at the same time. From our analysis, we find that the issue is one of staged implementation and now they need to take a measure of putting unit after unit in order and lessons learned in one place could go on to help the rest. A plan to put all these in a phased manner needs to be worked out and implem ented with the same vigor when it was started in 1994. Ã Owens Corning was swiftly growing with its new acquisitions and there was an ongoing incorporation of new technologies that improved their working situation and the profitability of the company. The Roof and Asphalt plants divisions of OC were just over 80 units strong and the implementation of SAP R/3 was to happen in these. But the rapidly changing scenario and the acquisitions of units caused a number of changes in the company resulting in the implementation of SAP R/3 for R&A divisions alone at more than 140 locations. All this meant that the exercise is going to get tougher than planned.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Give a topic - Research Paper Example This was mainly driven by the steadily growing population which gave rise to a growth in agriculture, trade and industry (Fairbank & Merle 89). ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy in this period was based on agriculture and all other sectors were either drawing from it or servicing it. In the era of the Song dynasty, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s agricultural system was the most productive worldwide. However, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s fast raising population quickly led to a decline in labor costs towards the 19th century (Fairbank & Merle 93). To overcome the situation, industrial producers started substituting labor for capital goods whenever the chance presented itself. Similarly, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s population grew in the same period. A national unifier named Tokugawa Ieyasu established a dynasty after victory in battle. This gave way to changes including bringing in new crops from the West and Chinese technology in civil works. More land was put under irrigation. The government, under Tokugawa, opened up trade with the We stern world and encouraged its people to take part in economic activities. It promoted industrialization by helping private businesses in allocation of resources and planning, while the private sector stimulated economic growth (Mosk 41). But unlike China, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s growing population did not bring about a decline in labor costs. In the 19th century, China and Japan were faced with similar situations of advancing industrialization with moderately low productivity levels in agriculture. Low agricultural productivity translated into low wages, and this factor presented both a challenge and an advantage (Fairbank & Merle 104). It meant that the labor supply in agriculture was elastic enough to move to manufacturing, which was an advantage. However, the challenge was how the farm labor could be freed up for employment in the factories by raising productivity of labor in farming. The different decisions made by the two countries to raise productivity of
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Economic Freedom - Essay Example hey please when it comes to issues of trade or should there be a governing body present to ensure that the playing field is leveled allowing every organization an equal chance to conduct business without the fear of being bullied or losing out to the larger companies that may be present in the area. In order to attain a clear view of economic freedom and the potential repercussions, it entails one has to study both sides of the argument to determine which makes a more valid point (Proudhon, 2005). The first group advocates for economic freedom without the limitations that may be set upon them by governing bodies in order to achieve a more liberal market that allows for business transactions without the bother of external influences that may step in from time to time whether the parties involved consent to it or not. The main basis of this argument is that businesses established by individuals or organizations were done so in order to profit from their transactions and the fact that external forces are able to influence these profits should not be allowed as long as the transactions that are carried out are perfectly legal and are not achieved through means such as force or fraud (Lawson, 2006). This side argues that as long as these external forces (mainly policies set by the governments) are able to interfere, true economic freedom cannot be achieved and by extent one is not able to benefit from the sweat of their hard work (Hayek, 2007). This group advocates that those entering into contract agreements are of sound mind and do so for a particular reason thus they should be allowed to function as they please as long as their activities are not hurting other. On the other side, the group that supports the involvement of governments in business activities allows for a more level playing field for everyone involved in the business world. This group argues that should the economic freedom that their opponents are seeking be allowed, the smaller businesses existing
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
What did the Impressionists aim to do Discuss their subject matter and their distinctive painting method - Essay Example The main aim of impressionists was to objectively record the world with respect to the protean effects of light and color. The Post-Impressionists, however, intended a better ambitious expression of light and color. Impressionists were initially considered as painters of mere impressions who are unable to create a well composed and finished painting. However, their special way of depicting the world received recognition later. An Impressionist paints outdoor sceneries and landscapes. They work for short period of time. They stop when light changes and resume their work when light become similar on another day. The Impressionist way of painting is done by making new advances in color. Color is packed in collapsible tubes that are portable. New ranges of colors are available, for example, some are less fugitive compared to others. ImpressionistÃ¢â¬â¢s way working initially alienated the public though it gained great impression in some minds. The Thames below WestminsterÃ¢â¬ is an example of nature painting that has the typical impressionist characteristics. It is a misty London landscape painting. The scene of London drowned in mass of fog captured the artistic heart of Claude. The special impressionist technique, the smear effect of brush touch, is recognizable in this painting. The less contrast of white and black and the balance between two main colors constitute the typical impressionist characteristics. Grey and beige color balance in the painting forms a smooth texture of mist perception. The Water-Lily Pond (1899) also has typical impressionist character of painting nature. The simple design of this painting, the lake and the close-up view of the bridge, makes it special. The painting shows an early summer day, leaves of fresh green color. The lively brushstrokes and application of pure color makes the painting a special impressionist painting. SeuratÃ¢â¬â¢s Bathers at Asnieres (1884), the celebrated painting of the young artist Georges Seurat (1859 -1891) shows some special impressionist characteristics. The usual pattern of impressionist paintings is visible in this painting. The open-air light effects, that are special characteristics of impressionist works, are found in this painting. According to impressionist ideas, the actual color of an object can be modified by various effects like sunlight, atmospheric light and juxtaposed colors. The technique of modifying color is visible in this painting. The painting is an example of the color theory of impressionists. It also shows an outdoor scene that is very common in impressionist paintings. A Wheatfield, with Cypresses 1889, the celebrated Vincent Van Gogh painting exhibits several characteristics of the paintings of impressionism. The painting shows nature, that is found in several other impressionist paintings. The equable balance of Impressionism, found in this painting, is cleanly replaced by an emotional disturbance. Calm objectivity is replaced by a special expression of intense feeling. The variety and freedom employed in the use of brush and the juxtaposition of near-primary colors makes A Wheatfield, with Cypresses 1889 a typical impressionist painting. The sunny landscape and the cypress trees also characterize the impressionist works. Van Gogh's Long Grass with Butterflies (1890) is another painting that shows the characteristics of works of the impressionism period. Nature scene and the color contrast visible in the painting makes it an impressionist painting. For capturing the constantly changing effects of light on
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Ethical Challenges - Essay Example Section II. Background Information on Each of the Organizations II.1 The Society of Professional Journalists Background information gathered from the official website of the Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ) has identified its founding date in 1909 (Society of Professional Journalists, 2013). Its existence is embodied in the simple goal of working to Ã¢â¬Å"improve and protect journalismÃ¢â¬ ¦ (and is) dedicated to encouraging the free practice of journalism and stimulating high standards of ethical behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Society of Professional Journalists, 2013, par. 1). It reveals a total of about 9,000 members globally and reportedly operates with an annual budget of about $1.7 million (Society of Professional Journalists, 2013). II.2 The International Association of Business Communicators The International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) was noted to have been founded in 1970 and was designed to provide Ã¢â¬Å"a professional network of about 15,000 business commu nication professionals in over 80 countriesÃ¢â¬ (International Association of Business Communicators, 2013, par. 1). The organization has boasted of having been able to establish 100 chapters globally and expects the number to continue manifesting an increasing trend. II.3 American Marketing Association The American Marketing Association (AMA) was reported to have been established in 1937 and has consistently grown Ã¢â¬Å"with over 30,000 members who work, teach and study in the field of marketing across the globeÃ¢â¬ (American Marketing Association, 2013, par. 1). The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission was explicitly stipulated towards Ã¢â¬Å"leading the practice, teaching and development of marketing knowledge worldwideÃ¢â¬ (American Marketing Association: Our Mission, 2013, par. 1). Section III. Tabular Listing of Ethical Issues Ethical Issues SPJ IABC AMA Preamble (purpose of the code) For public enlightenment Because professional communicators affect the lives of people To act as stewards in promoting highest standards of ethics Honesty Through seeking the truth and reporting it Ã¢â¬Å"fostering the free flow of essential information in accord with the public interestÃ¢â¬ (IABC, 2013, par. 7) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â to be forthright in dealings with customers and stakeholdersÃ¢â¬ (AMA, 2009, p. 2) Do No Harm Ã¢â¬Å"Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings deserving of respectÃ¢â¬ (SPJ, 1996, p. 1) Ã¢â¬Å"refrain from taking part in any undertaking which the communicator considers to be unethicalÃ¢â¬ (IABC: Articles, 2013, par. 5) Ã¢â¬Å"avoiding harmful actions or omissions by embodying high ethical standards and adhering to all applicable laws and regulations in the choices we makeÃ¢â¬ (AMA, 2009, p. 2) Acting Independently Avoiding conflicts of interest (SPJ, 1996) Ã¢â¬Å"do not accept undisclosed gifts or paymentsÃ¢â¬ (IABC: Articles, 2013, par. 10) Through ethical values of fairness and transparency (AMA , 2009) Be Accountable Provide accurate information and solicit publicÃ¢â¬â¢s response (SPJ, 1996) Ã¢â¬Å"disseminate accurate information and promptly correct any erroneous communicationÃ¢â¬ (IABC: Articles, 2013, par. 2) Through the ethical value of citizenship, responsibility, and transparency (AMA, 2009) Other Ethical Values Credibility, Freedom of Speech, Cultural Sensitivity, Conformity to Legal Laws, Acknowledging the words of others, Confidentiality (IABC, 2013)
Monday, September 23, 2019
Challenging customers in the marketplace - Essay Example Such customers also take more time of the shopkeepers as compared to other customers. Companies need to satisfy challenging customers in order to achieve success. Customer satisfaction results in improving the business (Fornell, Mithas, Morgeson, & Krishnan, 2006). Customers can be challenging for different reasons. Some of the most common reasons include language difference, aggressive mindset, lack of proper communication skills, inability to make quick decisions, and impatient and hostile nature. Past experiences, stresses, and different perceptions are those factors, which make most of the customers challenging. Every customer has a different set of experiences, which he/she uses while deciding to buy any specific product. Some customers have some concerns, which they communicate to the shopkeepers or customer service representatives while buying the products. Such customers are challenging customers and shopkeepers find it difficult to deal with such customers. Shopkeepers can deal with challenging customers by listening to them properly, asking questions, showing concerns towards the needs of the customers. Harris (2003) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Although challenging customers may be difficult to interact with, the reality is that they are still ou r customers and our goal is to provide them with excellent customer serviceÃ¢â¬ (p.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Malcolm a Homemade Education Essay Down syndrome is the most common cause of mental retardationDown syndrome is the most common cause of mental retardation. It is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome. Chromosomes contain sequences of DNA called genes that represent the genetic information that exists within a cell. Twenty-three distinctive pairs of chromosomes which is 46 in total. They are located within the nucleus (a region of the cell that is bounded by a specialized membrane, and which houses the genetic material). When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell, the newly created zygote normally receives 23 chromosomes from each parent. The contribution of genetic information from each parent is what makes each baby a distinctive blend of both characteristics. In Down syndrome a mistake during division of the sperm or egg cell produces a cell with an extra chromosome 21. This event occurs during cell division and is referred to as nondisjunction, or the failure of all chromosomes to separately properly resulting in retention of one of the chromosomes in one of the two new daughter cells. This is also called trisomy 21 and is accounted for 95% of all Down syndrome patients. A rare number of Down syndrome cases the original egg and sperm cells begins with the correct number of chromosomes but shortly after fertilization during the phase where cells are dividing rapidly a single cell can divide abnormally creating a line of cells with an extra chromosome 21. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s called a cell line mosaicism. The individual with this type of down syndrome has two types of cells: some 46 chromosomes which is the normal number and some with 47. Individuals who are mosaic for trisomy 21 typically have less sever sign and symptoms of the disorder. Another are location that can cause down syndrome is called a chromosome translocation. This is an even that unlike the numerical abnormally causing trisomy 21, there is a structural abnormality. Exchange of material from two different chromosomes during the production of sex cells can take place such that there is a whole chromosome 21 attached to another chromosome but the chromosome number is normal. These types of translocation involving chromosome 21, occur in about 3-4% of cases of Down syndrome. Ancient cultures, such as those in Greece, Rome, and Egypt, put disabled infants to death. Compassion toward the disabled was awakened by the early Christian church, but its charitable influence waned during the middle ages. Down syndrome also affected this people due to no one really caring about what was going on with the ill children. Down syndrome has a lot of causes and this is normally what some parents want to know is why their child is born with this syndrome. Most times this is why they tell you while you are carrying your child you need to watch very closely and look for all signs of genetic disorders with pregnant. Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder as I said before. A baby is usually identified at birth through observation of a set of common physical characteristics. Babies with Down syndrome tend to be overly quiet. When I say that I mean less responsive with weak floppy muscles. With that being said a number of physical signs might be present. This includes a flat bridge of the nose which is smaller than normal. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a low set nose. They will tend to have a small mouth with a protruding tongue, upward slanting eyes and also extra folds of skin located at the corner of each eye, near the nose. They will have small outwardly rotated ears and small hands as well. Usually they have an unusual deep crease across the center of the palm and a malformed fifth finger. They will have a wide space between the big and the second toes and unusual creases on the soles of the feet. They also experience shorter than normal height later on in their childhood. Before genetic testing became available, Down syndrome was diagnosed based on certain typical physical characteristics. Not all people with Down syndrome have all these characteristics though. This can vary from certain people and are caused by the extra chromosomes. Individuals with Down syndrome also have joints that are looser than normal. Their skulls are short and broad. Newborns usually have extra skin on the back of their neck, and as the child gets older the neck often appears short and wider than usual. Facial shape is round in the newborn and also during infancy. When the child gets older their face shape becomes oval like. This is due to the underdevelopment they go through. Their cheeks are round and the teeth develop late and in an unusual order. Although Down syndrome is not curable and there will be no cure for it, parents, researchers, and also the Down syndrome individuals try to make the best out of life and try dealing with it. Advances in medical treatment over the past 40 to 50 years for conditions such as heart defects and respiratory disease have led to dramatic increases in the life expectancy of those with Down syndrome.  Half of the children born with Down syndrome during the late 1960s survived to age 5. Bronchopneumonia, a respiratory illness and heart defects were the most common causes of death. Now about 80% of those born with it survive to age 10, and about 50% of them survive to age 50 or beyond. The recent statistics from various study places show that the place of incidence of Down syndrome anywhere from 1 in 600 to 1 in 1,000 live births. An analysis published by various people. Bray and colleagues in 1998 of combined data from nine different studies found that the incidence varies from 1 in 1,445 live birth mothers at age 10 to 1 in 25 live births to mothers at age 45. Down syndrome really is a hard disorder to live with but at the same time it has its advantages. Down syndrome has no treatment options but they have a lot of programs to help cope with this syndrome. The development of a child is a joyous thing. It involves amazing ohhs and ahhhs that would shock you every day your child does something new. All kids from the time their able to sit up by them and walks are learning new things everyday. Even as adults we learn new things everyday but still with Down syndrome, everything that they accomplish is outstanding. All kids learn to develop their fine motor skills but there are different aspects when it comes to Down syndrome children. The development of motor skills is very hard. The first thing you have to do is have a laid out foundation of how you plan on teaching that child. This is very dependent on stability. Stability is being able to push open a heavy door. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s being able to put on your shoes without falling. It is carrying a tray full of drinks. Its really a list that goes on but with this syndrome most things arenÃ¢â¬â¢t accomplished because down syndrome babies lack stability. Most of the people diagnosed wit this syndrome also tends to walk a little strange. They walk from side to side and always have their head twisted. Now as kids get older and reach their age past ten, then your not exactly ok, but you can breathe a little. Most researchers are still concerned about the older ones but its really the babies that most are worried about. They tend to go through a lot as newborns and unto there early infants stages.  Babies with Down syndrome suffer a lot. They have a lot they feel and go through, but being an infant and not being able to talk doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help at all. Being born with Down syndrome you experience how it is from that point on and for the rest of your life. Children with this syndrome almost always have some degree of intellectual disability. That is why they learn slower and have difficulty with complex reasoning and judgment. The degree of intellectual impairment various tremendously. These kids do learn and what they do learn they will not forget. Down syndrome can not be prevented but it is People with Down syndrome, whatever their age, are people first. They are people with abilities, strengths and weaknesses like everyone else. They may have additional needs but first they have the same needs as everyone else of their age group. The quality of health care, education and community support provided to children and adults with Down syndrome makes a real difference to their progress throughout life. This module provides an introduction to all the issues that need to be addressed to enable individuals with Down syndrome, and their families, to enjoy full and happy lives within their communities. It offers an overview of the development of individuals with Down syndrome from infancy to adult life. It also provides a summary of the causes of Down syndrome, the incidence and prevalence of the condition, life expectancy and associated education and health care needs. Children with down syndrome experience problems with their digestive tract at a rate that is much higher than that of other children.  some of these problems such as blockage of the digestice tract can be life threatening and can require emergency surgery. Blockage or atresia of the esophagus or the duodenum can cause starvation if not corrected. Atresia occurs when the anal opening does not develop. This condition prevents solid waste from being eliminated from the intestinal tract and must be corrected surgically. Anal stenosis will allow waste products to pass, but will cause constipation. Gastroesophageal feflux is also more common in individuals with down syndrome. During this stage food reenters the esophagus from the stomach. This can cause vomiting and irritation of the esophagus. You can also have vision problem s with down syndrome to. Theses problems are common with those suffering with down syndrome. Strabismus in which one or both euyes either truns in or out. Occurs in 43% of theses chuldren. It is caused by abnormal or incomplete development of the cneters in the brain that control the coordination of eye movements. This condition may require an eye patch, special glasses or even surgery. Vision therapy may also be benificial and should be considered before surgery. Hearing problems also come with syndrome.  anatomical differences that result from trisomy 21 contribute to the larger percentage of hearing difficulties founf in individuals with down syndrome. Appromately 53% in children with down syndrome have hearing problems. This makes it more difficult to examine the ars for wax buildup and infection. The middle ear is smaller than normal, as well. This contributes to the presence of chronic ear infections in 40% to 60% of children with downs syndrome. The shallow nasal bridge founfd in 61% of individuals with down syndrome also contributed. Collapse or blockage of the eustachian tube, which leads from the ear to the throat, causes fluid to build up in the middle ear and increases the risk of middle ear infection. In children with down syndrome the eustachian tubes are often smaller tha normal and have lowered muscle tone. Problems with fluid build up in the middle ear occur in 60% of indiviuals with down syndrome this fluid buildup interferes with hearing and can cause permanent hearing loss if it remains for a long peopif of time. Estimates of hearing loss in people with down syndrome range from 60% to 80%. Hearing loss in children can contribute to language and speech difficulies as well as auditory attention. Monitoring for fluid buildup and infections of the middle ear should begin before the age of six months and should continue into adulthood. Hearin aids may be a choice as well. Another problem that occurs in down syndrome individuals is problems with thyroid gland. Weighing less than one ounce the thyroid is actually one of the largest endocrine glands. Thyroid hormones help regualte the synthesis of growth factore and many hormones. Thyroid hormones are crucial for proper brain development during pregnancy. They are also important in normal growth. Because they are composed of the amino acid tyrosine, to which iodine molecules have been atattched adequate iodine in the diet is esstenial for their production. Another hormone produced by the thyroid gland is calcitonin which regulates the levels and metabolism of calcium. The hormones tri-iodothyonine and tetraiodothyonine are produced by the thyroid gland in a ratio of 1;14. t4 is secreted by the thyroid gland in responses to TSH. The active form, T3 is formed in the kidney, liver, and pleen by removal of one iodine molecule from T4. individuals with down syndrome also are 10 to 30 times more likely to develop Leukemia.  This is a type of cancer caused by the production of abnormal qhite blood cells by the bone marrow. These abnormal cells eventually crowd out normal white and red blood cells. There are two main types of leukemia. Acute and chronic. Acute leuk emias develop slowly and the patienst condition worsens slowly. Chronic leukemia develops rapidly and the patients syptoms worsen quickly. About 10% of babies born with down syndrome develop a transient leukemia that usually goes away by 3 months of age. About 20% to 30% of those with this transient condtion go on to develop acute leukemia. Babies who do not have down syndrome rarely have the transient form of leukemia. This higher risk of leukemia is in contrast to the risk of other types of cancer in individuals with down syndrome. The incidence of most types of solid tumors is muh smaller than in the general population. Down syndromes rates has also increased. From 1979 to 2003, the prevalence (total number of cases of a disease in a population at a specific time) of Down syndrome (DS) at birth increased by 31 percent, from 9 to 12 per 10,000 live births in 10 US regions. Within the 10 regions, birth prevalence of DS ranged from a low of 9. 7 in Arkansas to a high of 13. 7 in Utah during 1997-2003. The number of infants born with DS was almost 5 times higher among births to older mothers (38. 6 per 10,000) than among births to younger mothers (7. 8 per 10,000). In 2002, DS was found to be present in about 1 of every 1,000 children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 living in 10 chosen regions of the United States, which means that approximately 83,000 children and adolescents with DS were living in the United States during that year. Prevalence of DS by age group was the highest in 0-3 year olds at 11. , declining to 10. 3 among 4-7 year olds, 9. 8 among 8-11 year olds, 8. 3 among 12-15 year olds, and 6. 0 among 16-19 year olds. A screening test will help identify the possibility of Down syndrome. Screening tests do not provide conclusive answers, but rather, they provide an indication of the likelihood of the baby having Down syndrome. An abnormal test res ult does not mean that your baby has Down syndrome. The goal with a screening test is to estimate the risk of t baby having Down syndrome. If the screening test is positive and a risk for Down syndrome exists, further testing may be recommended. Diagnostic tests can identify Down syndrome before the baby is born. January issue of Obstetrics Gynecology, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists released guidelines recommending screening for Down syndrome to all pregnant women during their first trimester. Agnostic tests tend to be more expensive and have a degree of risk; screening tests are quick and easy to do. However, screening tests have a greater chance of being wrong; there are Ã¢â¬Å"false-positiveÃ¢â¬ (test indicates the baby has the condition when the baby really does not) and Ã¢â¬Å"false-negativesÃ¢â¬ (baby has the condition but the test indicates they do not). As far as those individual kids with Down syndrome there is a lot that they can do, just as the regular ones. Kids with Down syndrome tend to have a sense of humor. Those with this disorder have slurred words and stutter but what you can understand they have pretty good conversation. Also in about 4 percent of all down syndrome cases the individual possesses not an entire third copy of chromosome 21 material, which has been incorporated via a translocation into a no homologous chromosome. In translocation pieces are swapped between two non-related chromosomes forming hybrid chromosomes. The most common translocation associated with Down syndrome is that between the long arm (down gene area) of chromosome 21 and an end of chromosome 14.  The individual in whom the translocation has occurred shows no evidence of the aberration since the normal complement of genetic material is still present only a different chromosomes location. The difficulty arises when this individual forms gametes. A mother who possesses the 21/14 translocation, for example has one normal 21 one normal 14 and the hybrid chromosomes. She is a genetic carrier for the disorder because she can pass it on to her offspring even though she is clinically normal. The mother can produce three types of viable gametes: one containing the normal 14 and 21. the presence of an extra copy of the long arm of chromosome 21 causes defects in many tissues and organs. One major effect of Down syndrome is mental retardation. The intelligence quotients of affected individuals are typically in the range of 40-50. The IQ varies with age but being higher in childhood than in adolescence or adult life. The disorder is often accompanied by physical traits. Trisomy 21 is one of the most common chromosomal aberrations occurring in about 0. 5 percent of all conceptions and in one out of every seven hundred to eight hundred live births. About 15 percent of the patients institutionalized for mental deficiency suffer from Down syndrome. Before the chromosomal basis for the disorder was determined the frequency of Down syndrome births was correlated with increased maternal age. For mothers at age twenty the incidence of down syndrome is about 0. 5 percent which increases to 0. 9 percent by the age thirty-five and 3 percent at age forty-five. Comparing the chromosomes of the affected offspring with those of both parents have shown that the nondisjunction event is maternal about 75 percent the time. The maternal age effect is thought to result from the different manner in which the male and female gametes are produced. Gamete production in the male event in females. Formation of the femaleÃ¢ â¬â¢s gametes begins early in embryonic life, somewhere but between the eight and twentieth weeks. During this time, cells in the developing ovary divide rapidly by mitosis forming cells called primary oocytes. These cells then begin meiosis by pairing up the homologues. The process is interrupted now and the cells are held in a state of suspended animation until needed in reproduction, when they are triggered to complete their division. Most individuals with Down syndrome have intellectual disability in the mild (IQ 50Ã¢â¬â70) to moderate (IQ 35Ã¢â¬â50) range, with individuals having Mosaic Down syndrome typically 10Ã¢â¬â30 points higher. Dr. Weihs notes the mental qualities of people with Down syndrome to be unisexual, playful, affectionate, mischievous and imitative. Language skills show a difference between understanding speech and expressing speech, and commonly individuals with Down syndrome have a speech delay. Fine motor skills are delayed and often lag behind gross motor skills and can interfere with cognitive development. Effects of the condition on the development of gross motor skills are quite variable. Some children will begin walking at around 2 years of age, while others will not walk until age 4. Physical therapy, and/or participation in a program of adapted physical education (APE), may promote enhanced development of gross motor skills in Down syndrome children. A 2002 literature review of elective abortion rates found that 91Ã¢â¬â93% of pregnancies in the United Kingdom and Europe with a diagnosis of Down syndrome were terminated.  Data from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register in the United Kingdom indicates that from 1989 to 2006 the proportion of women choosing to terminate a pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome has remained constant at around 92%. In the United States a number of studies have examined the abortion rate of fetuses with Down syndrome. Three studies estimated the termination rates at 95%, 98%, and 87% respectively. Medical ethicist Ronald Green argues that parents have an obligation to avoid genetic harm to their offspring, and Claire Rayner, then a patron of the Downs Syndrome Association, defended testing and abortion saying The hard facts are that it is costly in terms of human effort, compassion, energy, and finite resources such as money, to care for individuals with handicaps People who are not yet parents should ask themselves if they have the right to inflict such burdens on others, however willing they are themselves to take their share of the burden in the beginning some physicians and ethicists are concerned about the ethical ramifications of the high abortion rate for this condition.  Conservative commentator George Will called it eugenics by abortion. 60] British peer Lord Rix stated that alas, the birth of a child with Downs syndrome is still considered by many to be an utter tragedy and that the ghost of the biologist Sir Francis Galton, who founded the eugenics movement in 1885, still stalks the corridors of many a hospitalÃ¢â¬ . Doctor David Mortimer has argued in Ethics Medicine that Downs syndrome infants have long been disparaged by some doctors and government bean counters. Some members of the disability rights movement believe that public support for prenatal diagnosis and abortion based on disability contravenes the movements basic philosophy and goals. Peter Singer argued that neither hemophilia nor Downs syndrome is so crippling as to make life not worth living from the inner perspective of the person with the condition. To abort a fetus with one of these disabilities, intending to have another child who will not be disabled, is to treat fetuses as interchangeable or replaceable. If the mother has previously decided to have a certain number of children, say two, then what she is doing, in effect, is rejecting one potential child in favor of another. She could, in defence of her actions, say: the loss of life of the aborted fetus is outweighed by the gain of a better life for the normal child who will be conceived only if the disabled one dies. Individuals with Down syndrome have a higher risk for many conditions. The medical consequences of the extra genetic material in Down syndrome are highly variable and may affect the function of any organ system or bodily process. Some problems are present at birth, such as certain heart malformations. Others become apparent over time, such as pilepsy. Other things Down syndrome patients go through are very emotional. For people with Down syndrome it is very hard to cope with the everyday activities. It is also hard on the family, especially the parents. It can be very frustrating for the parents to cope with having a child with Down. People born with Down syndrome require so much more extra attention than that of a normal child. Suggestions from some psychologists are for the parents to go to some kind of group sessions to talk to other parents who have children with Down. Therefore, someone else can understand the frustrations that they go through in raising their child. People with Down syndrome have a lot of different emotions running through their mind and body. People with Down syndrome, whatever their age, are people first. They are people with abilities, strengths and weaknesses like everyone else. They may have additional needs but first they have the same needs as everyone else of their age group. The quality of health care, education and community support provided to children and adults with Down syndrome makes a real difference to their progress throughout life. This module provides an introduction to all the issues that need to be addressed to enable individuals with Down syndrome, and their families, to enjoy full and happy lives within their communities. It offers an overview of the development of individuals with Down syndrome from infancy to adult life. It also provides a summary of the causes of Down syndrome, the incidence and prevalence of the condition, life expectancy and associated education and health care needs. Further modules in this series address each of these issues in detail. Down syndrome patients also have another way to look at things. The most of the time feel different and out of place. Most would like to know who Down syndrome affects. For instance what race and what are the ratios of living past a teenager Children and adults with Down syndrome have a wide range of abilities. A person with Down syndrome may be very healthy or may have unusual and demanding medical and social problems at virtually every stage of life. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to remember that every person with Down syndrome is a unique individual. Each child will develop at his or her own pace. It may take children with Down syndrome longer than other children to reach develop Down syndrome cannot be cured. However, early treatment can help many people with Down syndrome to live productive lives well into adulthood. Children with Down syndrome can often benefit from speech therapy, occupational therapy, and exercises to help improve their motor skills. They might also be helped by special education and attention at school. Some of the medical problems common in people with Down syndrome, like cataracts, hearing problems, thyroid problems, and seizure disorders, can be also treated or corrected. It has been suggested that children with Down syndrome might benefit from medical treatment that includes amino acid supplements and a drug known as Piracetam. Piracetam is a drug that some people believe may improve the ability of the brain to learn and understand. However, there have been no controlled clinical studies with Piracetam to date in the U. S. or elsewhere that show its safety and efficacy. The life expectancy for people with Down syndrome has increased substantially. In 1929, the average life span of a person with Down syndrome was nine years. Today, it is common for a person with Down syndrome to live to age 50 and beyond. In addition to living longer, people with Down syndrome are now living fuller, richer lives than ever before as family members and contributors to their community. Many people with Down syndrome form meaningful relationships and eventually marry. Now that people with Down syndrome are living longer, the needs of adults with Down syndrome are receiving greater attention. With assistance from family and caretakers, many adults with Down syndrome have developed the skills required to hold jobs and to live semi-independently mental milestones, but many of these milestones will eventually be met.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Quality of Work Life Essay Employees at any level many time experience a sense of frustration because low level of wages, poor working conditions, unfavourable terms of employment, inhuman treatement by their superiors the like whereas managerial personnel feel frustrated because of alienation over their condition of employment , interpersonal conflicts, role conflicts, Job pressure , lack of freedom , absence of challenging work, etc. QWL means different things to different people, J. Richard J. Loy define QWL as the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy mportant personnel needs through their experience in the organization. In the search for improved productivity, manager executives alike are discovering the important contribution of QWL. Hackman suttle describe QWL from varied viewpoints. From a professional view point , it refers to industrial democracy, increase workewrs participation in corporate decision making , or culmination of the goals of human realations. In terms of management perspective, it relates to a variety of efforts to improve productivity through improvements in the human , rather than he capital or technological inputs of production. From standpoint of the characteristics of individual workers , it refers to the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experience in the organization. From the unions, perspective , it is a more equitable sharing of the income and resources of the work of organization, and more human healthier working conditions. DIMENSIONS OF STUDY : Quality of work life improvement are defined as any activity which takes place at very level of organization which seeks greater organizational effectiveness through enhancement of human dignity and growth a process through which the stockholders in the organization management, union and employees- learn how to work together to better to determine for themselves what actions, changes improvements are desirable and workable in order to achive twin simultaneous goals of an improve quality of life at work for all members of organization greater effectiveness for the company and unions. Trade union claim that they are responsible for the improvements in various facilities to workers hereas management takes credit for improved salaries, benefits facilities. However, HR manager has identified specific issues in QWL. Klott Mundick Schuster suggested major QWL issues. They are: (1) Pay Employment on permanent basis: Good pay still dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction. Various alternative means for providing wages should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index , increase in levels rates of income tax profession tax. QWL must be build around an equitable pay programs . in uture more workers may want to participate in the profits of the firm. Employment of workers on casual, temporary, probationary basis gives them sense of insecurity. On the other hand , employment on the other basis gives them security leads to higher order QWL. (2) Occupational Stress : Stress is a condition of strain on ones emotions, thought process ; physical condition . stress is determined by the workers abilities nature and match with the Job requirements. Stress is cause due irritability, offering prestigious designation to the Jobs, providing well furnish amp; decent work places, offering membership in clubs or association , providing vehicles, offering vacation trips, or means to recognize the employees hyper- excitation or depression unstable behaviour, fatigue, stuttering, trembling psychometric pains, heavy smoking drug abuse. Stress adversely effects on employees productivity. The HR manager, in order to minimize the stress has to identifiy, prevent ; tackle the problem. He may arrange the treatment of problem with the health unit or provide some stress buster activities during the hectic work schedule. 3) Organizational Health programs : Organizational health programs aim at educating employees about health problems means of maintaining ; improving health etc. These programme covers drinking and smoking cessation ( if it is affecting the productivity of employee ) , hypertension control , other forms of cardiovascular risk reduction, family planning etc. Effective implementation of these progrme results in reduction in absenteeism, hospitalization ,disability, excessive Job turnover ; premature death. It should also covers relaxation, physical exercise , diet control etc. 4) Alternative work schedule : Alternative work schedule including work at home , flexible working hours, staggered hours , and reduced work week, part time employment which may be introduced for the convenience ; comfort of the workers as the work schedule which offers the individual the leisure time , flexible hours of work is preferred. 5) Participative Management ; control of work : Trade unions and workers participation in management and decision making improves QWL . workers also feel that they have control their work, use their skills ; make a real contribution to the Job if they re allowed to participate in creative and decision making process. (6) Recognition : recognizing the employee as a human being rather than as a labourer increases the QWL . Participative management , awarding the rewarding systems , congratulating the employees for their achievement , Job enrichment, offering prestigious designation to the Jobs, providing well furnish and decent work places,offering membership in club or associations , providing vehicles , offering vacation trips, or some means to recognize the employees . (7) Congenial Worker- supervisor Relation : Harmonious supervisor- worker relations give the worker essence of social association , belongingness, achievement of worker results etc. This in turn led to better QWL. 8) Grievance procedure : workers have a sence of fair treatement when the company gives them opportunity to ventilate their grievances and represent their case succinctly rather than settling the problems arbitrarily. (9) Adequacy of resources : Resources should match with stated objective ; otherwise , employee will not be able to attain them . This results in the employee dissatisfaction and lower QWL. 10) Seniority ; meri t in promotions : seniority is generally taken as the basis of promotion in case of operating employees . Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people whereas seniority cum- merit is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees. The promotional policies ; activities should be fair 7 Just in order to ensure higher QWL. (11) Welfare Benefits : Since workers are now better organized , educated ; vociferous, they demand social security ; welfare benefits as a matter of right which were once considered a part of bargaining process.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Forest Fire Danger Modelling Environmental Sciences Essay Forests constitute a large part of the earths renewable natural resources. Besides serving as an important source of food, fuel wood, fodder, timber etc, it also plays a pivotal role in maintaining a near ideal environmental condition for life sustenance (Biswadip Garia et al., 2007). Forest fires are natural or manmade disasters that occur throughout the world. Controlled forest fire is a useful, efficient and legitimate tool for environmental management such as forest clearance, field preparation, regrowth for livestock, and reduction of fire hazard. If the forest fire is un-controlled then it becomes a disaster. It adversely affects on humans, animals and plants. Annual fires may decrease the growth of the grasses, herbs and shrubs, which may result in increased soil erosion (Kandya et al., 1998).Forest fires cause wide ranging adverse ecological, economic and social impacts. In a nutshell, fires cause: indirect effect on agricultural production and loss of livelihood for the trib als (Biswadip Gharai et al., 2008). In 1982-1983, fires burned 3.6 M ha of scrub and forests in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, alone. These fires caused local extinction of some plants and animals and economic losses in forestry, non-timber forest products and agriculture of approximately $9 billion (Kinnaird and OBrien 1998). Chemical reactions of the gases released by fire leads to an increase in atmospheric ozone and the deposition of acidic compounds downwind from fires, which in turn can affect the physiology of plants and ecosystems in these areas. The ecological and socio-economic consequences of wild land fires in India include -Loss of timber, loss of bio-diversity, loss of wildlife habitat, global warming, soil erosion, loss of fuel wood and fodder, damage to water and other natural resources, loss of natural regeneration (IFFN Report: 2002). Forest fires also pose serious health hazards by producing smoke and noxious gases. The burning of vegetation gives off not only carbon dioxide but also a host of other, noxious gases (Green house gases) such as carbon monoxide, methane, hydrocarbons, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide, that lead to global warming and ozone layer depletion. Consequently, thousands of people suffered from serious respiratory problems due to these toxic gases. Burning forests and grasslands also add to already serious threat of global warming. Recent measurement suggest that biomass burning may be a significant global source of methyl bromide, which is an ozone depleting chemical. In 1997 up to 5 M ha got burned in Indonesia. The smoke of these fires affected the health of 70 million people and disrupted the economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore causing a total economic loss estimated at $4.4 billion (Kinnaird and OBrien, 1998). Fires affect animals mainly through effects on their habitat. Fires often cause short-term increases in wildlife foods that contribute to increases in populations of some animals. These increases are moderated by the animals ability to thrive in the altered, often simplified, structure of the post fire environment. The extent of fire effects on animal communities generally depends on the extent of change in habitat structure and species composition caused by fire (Smith et al., 2000). Forest ecosystems are capable of storing large quantities of carbon in trees, other organic matter, and soil. Forests may also reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through increases in biomass and organic matter accumulation. Forest fires add the pool of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Thus, Forest fires contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and, therefore, intensifying the greenhouse effect. The perturbation of atmospheric chemistry induced by global biomass burning is comparable in magnitude to the effect of fossil fuel burning (Lindesay et al., 1996). In June and July 1998 catastrophic wildfires had an estimated impact of $600-800 million in north eastern Florida, valuing the economic effects associated with category-2-hurricanes (Butry et al. 2001). Government policies: According to the Constitution of India, the central and state governments in the country are enabled to legislate on forestry issues. The implementation part of the forest policy/programmes lies with the state government. Thus, fire prevention, detection, and suppression activities are the responsibility of the state governments forest departments. The policy, planning, and financing are the primary responsibility of the Central Government (Ministry of Environment and Forests Report: 2007). Forest fire and its management have long history in Indian forestry. Forest fire occurs quite frequently during summer season. The conventional methods of fire protection cover an elaborate network of fire lines, fire watchtowers, block lines and guidelines (Roy et al., 2005). The monitoring and management of forest fires is very important in tropical countries such as India, where forests are prone to fires annually causing adverse ecological, economic and social impacts (Kiran Chand et al. 2006). Indian fire scenario: Forest fire is a major cause of degradation of Indias forests. It is estimated that the proportion of forest areas prone to forest fires annually ranges from 33% in some states to over 90% in others. According to the recent State of Forests report, the forest cover in India is 67.5 M ha, constituting 20.5 % of its geographical area, represented by 41.68 M ha (12.68 %) of dense forest and 25.87 M ha (7.87%) of open forest (FSI, 2003). Studies carried out by Forest Survey of India reveals that on an average 53 percent forest cover of the country is prone to heavy to light fire (State of Forest Report, 1997) and 6.17% of the forests are prone to severe fire damage.. Forest Survey of India estimated that about 1.45 million hectares of forest are affected by fire annually. In India there are very few cases of fire due to natural causes. The majority of the forest fires in the country are human caused. For getting information on forest fires in India in real time basis, Forest Survey of India is using satellite data procured on daily basis by the Forest Fire group of University of Maryland, USA. Forest Fire Group in association with NASA uploads information on active forest fires of the whole world on the Web Fire Mapper (http://maps.geog.umd.edu) on the daily basis. The updated information for the current date is available at around 10.30 AM for India on this website. U.S. based this group obtains information on global fires from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer) sensors that are on the board of their Terra and Aqua Satellites. In India we have our own space programme in place for detecting forest fires in real time basis. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) through its array of IRS satellites, Environment Satellite (ENVISAT) and through its Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Line scan System (DMSP-OLS)a programme that helps in detecting fires during night, is helping the field mangers in identifying forest fire recurrence zones, forest fire risk assessment, potential areas for fire line alignment, fire watch towers locations, fire recovery analysis, monitoring fire progression, assessing near real time damage and in mitigation planning etc issues. As part of Disaster Management Support Programme of Department of Space, Decision Support center (DSC) is established at NRSC for working towards effective management of disasters in India. Under DSC activities of NRSC, considering the importance of forest fire management in India, a comprehensive system Indian Forest Fire Response and Assessment System (INFFRAS) integrating multi sensor satellite data and ground data through spatially and temporally explicit GIS analysis frame work is planned (NRSA Report: 2006). The INFFRAS is designed to meet the requirements of the forest department at following three levels. Pre fire : Preparatory planning for fire control; During fire : Near real time active fire detection and monitoring; Post fire: Damage and recovery assessment and mitigation planning. Information of fire locations on daily basis with in 1-2 hours of the satellite ground pass can be viewed on their web site (www.nrsa.gov.in) Fire Danger Rating Index: Fire danger is the resultant of factors affecting the inception, spread and difficulty of control of fires and the damage they cause (Chandler et al. 1983). If any of these factors are absent, then there is no fire danger (Cheney and Gould1995). the various factors of fuels, weather, topography and risk are combined to assess the daily fire potential on an area. Fire Danger is usually expressed in numeric or adjective terms. Fire danger indices are an important tool for fire and land managers. Effective Forest-fire management is based on sound knowledge of the potential for ignition, behaviour, difficulty of control, and impact of fire in a given situation. Forest-fire danger-rating systems provide a framework for organizing and integrating scientific knowledge and operational experience, and they are a cornerstone of modern fire management (S.W. Taylor et al 2001.) Fire danger rating systems are used by fire and land management agencies to determine levels of preparedness, to issue public warnings, and to provide an appropriate scale for management, research, and law for fire related matters (Cheney and Gould 1995). All these systems integrate weather variables to assess fire danger, calculated as a numerical index. A variety of fire danger ratings are used around the world, including the McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI, McArthur 1967), used in the eastern parts of Australia, the Forest Fire Behavior Tables (FFBT, Sneeuwjagt and Peet 1998), developed for use in Western Australia, the Fire Weather Index (FWI, van Wagner 1987) used in Canada, the National Fire Danger Rating System (Deeming et al. 1977) used in the USA and the Nestrov Fire Danger Index System used in the Russia. Why Himachal Pradesh: Forests are an important resource of Himachal Pradesh. The forests of the state are rich in biodiversity and play a vital role inpreserving the fragile Himalayan ecosystem while also being a primary livelihood source for the rural population and prime source of fresh water for both urban and rural population (Report of Himachal Pradesh Forest Department 2005). Forest wealth of Himachal Pradesh is estimated at over Rs. 1,00,000 crores. Most of precious coniferous forests are of such nature that these cannot be truly regenerated by human beings if these are cut once (Annual plan 2006-07).Forest fires are occurred every year. Recently, in the year 2012, Forest fires have destroyed more than 20,000 acres of forest land and caused a loss of more than Rs 2.6 crores of green property in three weeks. The fires, which first started in the Hamirpur circle, were later also reported in the forests of Shimla, Nahan and Mandi (Madhuri Gaur et al 2012).
Thursday, September 19, 2019
"A Rose for Emily" is a wonderful short story written by William Faulkner. It begins with at the end of Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s life and told from an unknown person who most probably would be the voice of the town. Emily Grierson is a protagonist in this story and the life of her used as an allegory about the changes of a South town in Jefferson after the civil war, early 1900's. Beginning from the title, William Faulkner uses symbolism such as house, Miss Emily as a Ã¢â¬Å"monument Ã¢â¬Å", her hair, Homer Barron, and even EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"roseÃ¢â¬ to expresses the passing of time and the changes. The central theme of the story is decay in the town, the house, and in Miss Emily herself. It shows the way in which we all grow old and decay and there is nothing permanent except change. Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s house is one of the important symbols which represent the past because it rejects updating like Miss Emily. The Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ house had once been white, decorated with cupolas and spires and scrolled balconies in the heavily lightsome style of the seventies, set on what had once been our most select streetÃ¢â¬ (209).Then it ages with Emily an Ã¢â¬Å"eyesore among eyesoresÃ¢â¬ (209). She had once been Ã¢â¬Å"a slender figure in whiteÃ¢â¬ (211) and later she looks Ã¢â¬Å"bloated, like a body long submerged in motionless water... her eyes lost in the fatty ridges of her face...Ã¢â¬ (210). She represents the Old South by her actions. She avoided to believe that time were changing and did not join the new society. She even does not come out. One example of Emily lives in the past is when she refuses to pay the tax. During Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral she referred to another symbol as a Ã¢â¬Å"fallen monumentÃ¢â¬ (209), which could mean she was once beautiful and wealthy but with time she grew old and became poor. Also it port... ... the nostrils, we saw a long strand of iron-gray hairÃ¢â¬ (215). Considered in above symbols, Faulkner's story gives the idea with the changes of appearances and life of Emily Grierson by the time as an allegory for the changes in the old fashioned Southern ideals after the Civil War. Even though Emily is a strong woman, at the same time she is the victim of her resistance to change of time while the world went on without her and misperception of the people around her. In conclusion, this story Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ tells the life, the love, the time, hopes, and destruction of Emily Grierson by using intelligent symbols. Emily never accepts that the changing world around her might be benefiting for her life "The newer generation became the backbone and the spirit of the town" (214), but Emily always in conflict with both her heart and her community, and modern world.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Body Language 1.1 What is Body Language? Body Language is the unspoken communication that goes on in every Face-to-Face conversation with another person. It tells you their true feelings towards you and how well your words are being received. Between 50% of our message is communicated through our Body Language 40 % tone of our voices and 10% only are our words. Your ability to read and understand another person's Body Language can mean the difference between making a great impression or a very bad one! Reading someone body language can help you in a job interview, that meeting, or special date! Every one of us has experienced the feeling of like this person and not dislike that person but without necessarily knowing why. There was something about them. We often refer to this as a hunch or gut feeling, two descriptions directly relating to our own body's physiological reaction. Everyone has experienced the feeling that they have just been lied to, haven't they? We all here during a conversation have experienced the feeling that someone is lying to us. The words of the conversation probably weren't what we noticed as a direct lie. It was more likely to be the body movements that showed he is lying to us. Darting eyes, palms not visible, shifting from one foot to another, hand covering mouth or fingers tugging at the ear are clues. All the clues are there. Our subconscious picks them up, and if we're lucky enough to be perceptive, decodes them and tells us that the words and gestures don't match! Whenever there is a conflict between the words that someone says and their body signals and movem... ... non-verbal indication that you are both thinking along the same lines. It's not always this obvious...Body positioning The easy way to tell whether the person you're talking to is enjoying the conversation: The person is standing facing you with their body and feet pointing towards you and mirroring your positions. The tell-tale signs that someone's feeling uncomfortable or not enjoying the conversation: The person's head is turned towards you and appears engaged in the conversation - smiling, nodding etc, but their body and feet are pointing away from you. If someone's body is turned away from you it will be facing the place where they'd rather be. If they're pointed towards another person or the exit then it's time to terminate the conversation or do something to attract their full attention.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
With the rapid development of technology, constraints of economy and changing expectations about intellectual property rights, the HS librarian has to forcefully demonstrate the value of his / her contributions to their institutions. Addressing client information needs and thereby performing the scientific communication activities are the primary responsibilities of a librarian, who is known today as a Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge workerÃ¢â¬ . An effective leader in an academic HS library will constantly be engaged in activities which continually educate their staff ,re-engineer their programs and re-design products and services to meet the modern challenges of client information requirements through retrieval , creation , manipulation, management and dissemination of new knowledge. To be effective, the HS librarian has to be a viable participant in scientific communication. As a director of a HS library, my mantras would be Ã¢â¬Å"transformation,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"restructuring,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"re-engineeringÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â the ones used by deans and other strategic planners on their campuses. I would strive to prove the value of the HS library to the institution through evaluative data and cost/benefit analyses by employing self assessment techniques. I would play a proactive role in introducing and integrating technologies into the communication process. I would act as an agent for the information seeker by gathering published information, seeking new sources, weighing responses, consulting on the design of personal databases, and packaging results into customized products. I would also join teams of clinicians or researchers to provide on-site consultation and delivery of information services or teaching the use of information management techniques and technologies in classrooms, labs, and offices. I would acquire new computational skills, deeper understanding of the information needs in subject disciplines, and expertise about the management of knowledge in distributed technology-intensive environments . The six types of library budgets are 1) Lump sum Ã¢â¬â refers to the allocation of a lump sum amount as resources to the library. This allocation is done by the top management of the parent organization.. 2) Formula Ã¢â¬â budget is one which is typically tied to a numeric value such as full-time-equivalencies (FTEs), i. e. , number of FTEs registered students multiplied by a fixed dollar amount yields the budget for the library. 3) Line Item Ã¢â¬â The line-item budget represents the most commonly used budgeting method for special libraries (Warner 9). In a line-item budget, each category of activity is afforded its separate appearance ( eg salaries, etc. ) 4) Program Ã¢â¬âa program budget focuses on the services the library provides to its clients and is an extension of the line item type of budget. 5) Performance Based Ã¢â¬â Performance budgets share characteristics with program budgets, but performance budgets focus primarily on what library staff members do or what functions they perform in the libraryÃ¢â¬â¢s service complement. 6) Zero Based Ã¢â¬â Zero-based budgeting requires that a Ã¢â¬Å"clean slateÃ¢â¬ be the starting point for budget development. Budget affects special libraries in much the same way as budgets affect any organization, including the parent organization of the special library. Therefore, given a choice, I would opt for a program budget as it relates to overall organizational goals and objectives and is very useful in establishing priority for library programs relative to the parent organization blend of the line item Training of the personnel is the most challenging personnel management issue. The challenge would be to keep all the Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge workersÃ¢â¬ motivated enough to keep themselves updated in all the relevant knowledge areas, so that they acquire an expertise in facilitating access to information, and also assembling the means for getting it. Building a team which will be constantly finding and/or building tools for managing knowledge, evaluating new products in light of their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ information needs, making office calls, providing consultation services, offering themselves as contractors, gathering feedback, and measuring product effectiveness. In the modern age of technology, the entire systems are networked. In the networked environment, few information products can stand alone without a support system. With most of the libraries using technology, the space planning and management would be similar to the data warehousing , data maintenance, data based administration, and data retrieval, data archiving and data purging techniques used in the technological terms. BIBLIOGRAPH : Introduction to Health Sciences Librarianship by M. Sandra Wood.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The frequent cry which is heard from varying audiences all over the nation gives good reason for deep concern. What ever happened to decent entertainment and viewing for individuals, families and friends? Constitutional indifference is cited as one of the main problems as increasingly, it is becoming a grey area in the aspect of decency. Ultimately, it cannot be the lack of specificity in the constitution that should be blamed. As a whole, the broadcasting industry has a major moral and social responsibility to play. Working in hand with the law makers, it would be in the best interest of the nation to have more constitutional precision when it comes to defining levels of decency acceptability especially in the best interest of the younger generation. These are the future of this country. Comment 2 It is all well and good to be having debates and news stories capturing the sordid activities perpetuated by sex slave traders who reap benefits from such a terrible occupation. The reality of the matter is down to how practical measures have been put in place to combat the negative impression created by those industries that thrive on the weaknesses and degradation of women majorly and families of gamers. For one thing, promising a better lifestyle for women from minority backgrounds globally through sex slavery is inhumane and utterly despicable. The Gaming Commission has a lot to offer through the application of stringent policies to resorts and gaming places, in the forms of casinos et al, in order to limit the negative portrayal of the entertainment which it offers Ã¢â¬â indecent and highly degrading. With the increase in popularity of the gaming industry, the advertising and publicity which it currently fosters will only lead to higher rates of crime and vice stemmed in drug, alcohol and sexually-related perversion. Las Vegas for instance will only experience rises in discrimination against women, sexually-related abuse cases, higher divorce rates amongst other similar vices. Advertising is a powerful weapon of molding culture and attitudes in society either for good or for bad. The time is now to maximize its positive influence in this generation. References Goldman, A. (2008, January 31). Bewildered, academics pore over sex-tradeÃ hysteria: They try to figure out how they gotÃ steamrolled. Las Vegas Sun. http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2008/jan/31/bewildered-academics-pore-over-sex-trade-hysteria/
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Various Structures Ã¢â¬â Practical Illustration organizational structure: It refers to a formal system of tasks and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates employees to work together to achieve the organizational goals. Formal system of task and reporting relationships showing how workers use resources. It Involves the following structures: 1) Functional Structure It refers to the organizational structure composed of all the departments that an organization requires to produce Its goods or services. tOf3 2) Dlvlslonal structures It refers to the organizational structure composed of a series of business units to produce a specific kind of product for a specific kind of customer. It is used by most large corporations. It involves 3 main types: a) Product Structure, where divisions are created according to the type of product and service. b) Geographic Structure, where divisions are based on the area of a country or world served. c) Market Structure, where divisions are based on the types of customers served. 3) Matrix Structure It refers to the organizational structure that groups people by function and product teams simultaneously. It results in complex relationships. The structure is very flexible. Each employee has two bosses (functional manager and product manager) 4) Product Team Structure It refers to the organizational structure where members are permanently assigned to a team empowered to bring a product to market. It involves no two-way (dual) reporting. It involves forming cross-functional teams composed of a group of managers from different departments working together to perform organizational tasks. Existing AFC Organizational Structure: It is very clear that Abu Qir Fertilizers Company extremely represents applying the unctional very steep highly centralized extensively rigid structure.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
B1. Analyze Simulation Results A budget is a financial plan which is expressed in real numbers, typically in monetary units, which set the expectations for the expenses the company will incur to reach its goals, and management objectives. A good budget uses forecasts to determine what amounts should be used to reach desired efficiency and profitability. Budgets can be used to determine whether a not a process is working effectively, whether or not changes in operations need to be made in order to reach goals, and can help solve problems before they occur and help make changes when necessary. Budgets are important because they provide a quantitative measurement to establish goals, coordinate efforts and departments, and help to realize changes are needed before problems occur. Budgets should be broken down into fragments (short term, mid-term, and long term) which will allow for more precise measurement of the success of a project, allow for changes to be made before moving onto new projects, and to expand on goals when appropriate. By setting short term budget goals and reaching them it helps to ensure that the company is on pace to reach its long term objectives. Budgets need to be revised whenever they no longer useful for planning and control purposes. Anytime there are major changes in the processes or operations the budgets will also need to be revised. Budget figures should be measured frequently to ensure they are still reasonable and that the company is still on track to reach its goals. A Pro-Forma Statement is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a financial statements prepared on the basis of some assumed events and transactions that have not yet occurred.Ã¢â¬ (Ralph Estes). Unlike Historical Financial Statements which use real scientific information and are based on facts, Pro-Forma Financial Statements use assumptions to help forecast the future and allow for the use of creativity and flexibility. Pro-Forma Financial Statements are similar to Historical Financial Statements in look and content, both use the same major financial statements including the income statement and the balance sheet, but the Pro-Forma Financial Statement allows for changes to be made in the volatile environment. Pro-Forma Statements are important because they provide the needed information to track progress towards goals. They are based on historic figures so they do provide realistic projections while still allowing for adjustments as needed. Typically a long collection of historic data is used to produce a Pro-Forma Income statement; since the company I created was a start up our information was limited there was even more of a reliance on projections to complete my statements. In the first quarter I had start up factory expenses of $430,000 and spent $120,000 on market research. I had gained $3,000 in interest from a small deposit into a short term CD. I had invested $1,100,000 for fixed plant capacity. Of the $2,000,000 of initial capital $547,000 was used for start-up expenses leaving the company with $1,453,000 in current assets. Important decisions had to be made during Quarter 1 in order to make my projections and set my budgets and expectations. First I had to choose what products to manufacture. I wanted to look for two segments which had some similar wants and needs. By developing two products for two segments with similar wants and needs the hope was that I would be pay off later in saving manufacturing costs by utilizing customization of parts, decrease training costs, cut down on salary expense by having a sales force that could be knowledgeable with both products, and would allow the company to provide better service after the sale. The decisions were all based upon the market research which had been done providing the wants and needs of the segments as well as the price willing to pay, the 12 month demand, and the demand per city. By performing some simple calculations (i.e. price willing to pay X Demand / cost to produce) I was able to make an informed decisions on the two products I wanted to deve lop, where I wanted to set up shop, the size of my sales force, as well as the amount of inventory to produce. I decided to manufacture two products which I felt met the needs of two specific groups. The first group was decided upon due to the quantity of the demand. I felt around this product I could better reach my goal of utilizing an employee empowerment strategy, being able to utilize work cells due to less technical processes and needs, be able to take advantage of customization of parts, and also be able to offer better service after the sales due to increased employee knowledge of the product and the service needed. I decided to focus my efforts on the Workhorse and the Traveler markets. Both markets had similar needs and the products would only need to differ in portability. The market was large and although the desired price would be lower, the higher demand would help generate profit. The hope was to build the distinction of being the low price leader while still providing a reliable product and providing excellent service after the sale. By setting proper starting budgets and being able to adjust accordingly by utilizing the pro-forma statements I was able to make sound financial decisions throughout the simulation. I never had to use emergency loans so I was able to avoid that penalty and cost. By using the statements was even able to make small investments and earn some interest off of those funds. Being a startup company I was very conservative with my investments so I could ensure I would not incur those costs. At the end of the 4th quarter my ending cash balance was over 4 million dollars. This allows for great expansion and higher sales as well as the ability to invest more funds and take advantage of additional interest income. Without the use of the statements and the budget it would not have been possible to monitor the spending and make informed decisions. The Pro-Forma statements and budgets were used to make decisions throughout the entire simulation. Each Quarter I began by examining the cash flow statement. This allowed me to make proper decisions based on the FirmÃ¢â¬â¢s solvency as well as my companyÃ¢â¬â¢s potential for growth. At the beginning of Quarter 1 I had $0 in my beginning cash balance. Thus it was necessary to sell common stock. $2 million dollars were raised through the sale of common stock. It was very important to use my income statements, original budgets, and monitoring my balance sheet. $1.1 million of the funds would be used to invest in my fixed plant capacity in order to reach the needed production levels. With the funds on hand I was only able to open 2 sales offices. I chose the locations based on the projected sales demand, the allotted funds in the budget, and the money left in the cash flow. The two offices cost $430,000 to start up and would also cost a total of $220,000 per quarter for lease. After setting up the Plant capacity and the Sales Offices I had $470,000 dollars left. I still needed funds for Research and Development to ensure that I was making proper decisions and to help guide my decisions in future quarters. I decided to spend $120,000 on research and development. This left me $350,000 in excess cash. I decided to invest a portion of it but was careful using my Pro-Forma statements to ensure that I would not run into the cost of emergency cash loans. $200,000 was placed into a conservative short term C.D. which earned me $3,000 in interest income. The $3,000 and the excess $150,000 would be carried over into the next quarter. The same techniques were used every decision every quarter. Any time I made a decision it was based on my cash flow, income statements and demand projections. Lessons were learned from these decisions, more funding into research and development needed to be used early in the simulation. The result of the poor planning led to the expense of products needing to be redesigned. The carry over equipment had to be sold for salvage value and additional funding needed to be raised to develop the new products. With the proper products in place for the market demand the profits would have been much larger for my company. B2a. Just-in-time Just in Time operations is basically a system which helps force problem solving and drives down start-up costs and inventory costs by initiating a pull system driven by consumer demand and reducing inventory to meet the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs only when the customer has that need. If the product is not available at the time of demand a problem is found and improvements need to be made. This is very important to any company but especially for a start-up company who really need to watch their cash flow to avoid any emergency loans and the cost and fees associated with them. In my projections I had to take into account the demand of the segments in the cities decided to serve and make educated estimates on how much to produce based on those calculations. There were still questions which needed to be answered which led to less aggressive manufacturing; would my advertising efforts convey the right message to my target audience? Would my choices on where to advertise be successful on reaching my target audience? Would my product designs and branding fit the needs of my customers or would new products need to be developed? The answers to these questions could lead to major adjustments to our entire process and if not done well could lead to an excess of unused inventory which would only be able to recover a small part of the cost it took to develop them. Estimates were made based on the projected sales demands of the markets. Fixed capacity, sales force decisions, and of course inventory decisions were made based on these projections. The idea of course was to have the perfect amount of inventory available to my customers at the exact time they needed them, with very little cost from carrying over unused inventory. Proper use of a Just-in-time strategy could have saved me money and helped expand my companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. During the manufacturing process a Just-in-time strategy wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve have uncovered the need to increase production to meet my customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand as the products were being Ã¢â¬Å"pulled throughÃ¢â¬ the assembly process. The improper use of the JIT strategy resulted in a loss of 278 Venture II customers and 143 customers of Quest II. The result of these lost customers was $578,453 in profit. By properly utilizing the strategy profits could have been even higher and future growth could have increased. Going forward it will be important to utilize the performance of the past year and make better decisions to provide for a better customer experience. Fortunately after the losses occurred decisions were made to make sure it did not happen again throughout the simulation. A good Just-In-Time strategy would have allowed the mistakes to be caught prior to having to absorb the losses and the poor customer experiences. B2b. Lean Operations Lean operations work hand in hand with making J.I.T. effective. By definition lean operations are used to understand customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and then to stock and prepare appropriately based on said needs. In my project this was done by successful forecasting based on potential demand of the customers in the given areas and based on the chosen products. By basing our inventory on a lean operations focus the company will be able to decrease the costs of waste in itÃ¢â¬â¢s operations, both in unused inventory and the cost of storing excess inventory. B3. Applicability of Work Cells versus Traditional Straight Line Method An effective layout design strategy is important because the decision alone can help decide the efficiency of production as well as help to determine a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage. How will the firm be looking to set itself apart? Will it be through differentiation, low cost, or response? Will the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s priorities focus on capacity, processes, flexibility, and/or cost, etc.? In its very basic form an effective layout design will improve efficiency by better utilizing space, people, and machinery, improving communication, improving inspection, and by allowing for flexibility. Work Cells are specially arranged groups of workers and workstations designed to make the production of a single product or group of related products more efficient by allowing workers to have more reach in the work area, allow for immediate inspection of complete product, fewer workers are needed, less work space, and prom otes better communication between workers. Workers often accept the responsibility of building the product from start to finish in a more positive light because of the empowerment it provides and the specialized training and expanded knowledge. Work Cells are often in the shape of a Ã¢â¬Å"UÃ¢â¬ allowing for better balance and division of work. The U-shape also will take up more space on the floor than the Traditional Straight Line process method. A Traditional Straight Line process method is the old assembly line assembly process. Each worker is responsible for a piece of a product. That piece is then put together with other pieces and the final product is put together in a series of pieces. The assembly line relies on workstations to be balanced in the share of the work to be effective however; the layout alone often leads to an unbalanced division of the workload. The pieces cannot be inspected until the finished product has been fully assembled by the varying teams, and communication and diverse learning is very limite d. The assembly line approach also leads to the possibility of a Ã¢â¬Å"bottleneckÃ¢â¬ effect where total production can be slowed by slow production from one of the work units. The advantages of the assembly lines are of course a less expensive and quicker training process, more standardization of parts, and lower handling costs. The decision on which method to use was a difficult one. One of the reasons I chose the two products that I did was because of their similarities and the ability to use customizable parts. However another key to the success was the ability to capitalize on efficient inventory management and processing. Another key was employee empowerment through knowledge which would lead to better service and the ability to recognize and fix problems as they occur during the assembly process. With this being said I would implement a work cell assembly approach. B4. Decisions Involving Inventory Management Understanding the relationship between inventory levels and customer needs is a critical part of any companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Too much inventory can lead to extra costs for the company in the form of storage costs of unused inventory and the expense of selling off unused inventory at discount prices. Not having enough inventory can lead to poor customer experiences by not being able to meet the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs when needed. This leads to fewer repeat sales and poor relationships. In order for a company to have a low cost strategy they must master inventory levels. As discussed earlier I did not do a good job of inventory management and it cost me in the form of profits and customer satisfaction. The idea is to be perfect and I was far from it. I underestimated the increase in demand after improvements were made in product design and marketing. The result was having higher demand than inventory available. The miscalculations of potential demand cost my company through the simulation and it is very important to execute better inventory management decisions in the future to avoid such issues and losses in the future. My growth decisions were made properly in the form of additional markets, additional sales and service staff, and more fixed capacity capabilities. However, I did not make good inventory management decisions to match the growth demands. The idea of inventory management is of course to find the perfect balance of meeting my customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs while limiting my costs in holding costs and excess capacity costs. It was again necessary to utilize my pro-forma statements to monitor these expenses. The inventory needs were based on demand projections, marketing efforts, and the number of sales people hired. Since my company was a start-up company with little or no brand recognition it was important to find a conservative figure which would still fit the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ wants and needs. In the initial Quarter I chose to project demand at 100 units per sales person. I had confidence in my product in the first quarter and decided to leave 43 units of Venture and 32 units of Quest as carryover. The hope was not to run into issues of Sales lost and a loss of customers due to poor experiences. The problem I ran into was due to poor research and development the target market did not find either of my products desirable to fit their needs as they were. My confidence quickly turned into an error in Inventory Management. The remaining units had to be sold at a Salvage price ($846.40 for Venture and $870.40 for Quest). The set price on Venture was $2500 and Quest was $3200, the cost to produce Venture was $1667 and Quest was $1698. This was an enormous loss in potential profits for my company and better use of inventory management and of course research and development could have prevented it. The new products were produced that met the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ wants and needs and I decided based on the research which was provided and the history of sales I would be more aggressive with my inventory levels. The sales force was increased to 16 people in Quarter 3 with a demand per sales person of 148, and based on the success in Quarter 4 the sales people were increased to 25 people with an estimate of 225 units per sales person. Due to the increase in demand caused by the additional production more inventory would left at the end of the quarter. The recommendation was that inventory levels should be left at a range of 25 to 50 units of each product, but based on the confidence of sales I increased those ranges and decided to have 86 Venture II units and 64 Quest II units in inventory left at the end of each quarter. I had no missed sales because of a lack of inventory and fortunately did not have to sell any unwanted inventory at salvage prices. Costs did increase in Quarter 4 both in holding costs and excess capacity costs but the cash increases were more than enough to justify the additional inventory. B5. Use of Specific Continuous Programs to Achieve Quality Assurance Goals. Having a culture which promotes quality from top to bottom affects the company in many positive ways; if it starts at the top it becomes a culture which then empowers employees and leads to better customer satisfaction. There are several different programs which help to measure quality; 1.) Continuous Improvement, 2.) Six Sigma, 3.) Employee Empowerment, 4.) Benchmarking, 5.) Just in Time (J.I.T.), 6. Taguchi Concepts and 7.) Knowledge of Total Quality Management (T.Q.M.) Tools. Every aspect of operations can be improved and of course the overall goal is perfection. The cost of defective parts and or systems can be dramatic for a company and difficult to recover. Therefore it is very important to have the proper programs in place to measure quality. I believe two Quality Inspection programs would have been beneficial for my company. It was very important to my company as well as my target customers for us to provide a quality reliable product and have the service in place after the sale for my customers. I believe by implementing an Employee Empowerment program I can help develop quality on both the production side as well as on the service side. Employee Empowerment involves expanding the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ roles and responsibilities so that empowerment and belief is spread throughout the company from the highest to the lowest level. By including such responsibilities to the lowest level there is a greater chance that defections or needed improvements will be both addressed as well as shared by the employees who are using the machinery and involved in the everyday operations of the company. With high morale and open communication lines the company should be able to reach the desired quality. The desired quality which the company will be seeking will be determined by using a quality program called Benchmarking. That desired quality will be what our products and services will look like at their very best. All other performances will be judged by comparing to this benchmark. A team will need to be assembled, benchmarking partnerships will need to be formed, data will need to be collected and compared, and improvements will need to be to try and reach our benchmarks. Our benchmarking efforts will analyze such important factors as percentage of defects, customer satisfaction rate, cost per unit, return on investment, customer retention, and response time. References 1. Ralph Estes Dictionary of Accounting (MIT, Cambridge, 1981, p. 105)