Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Mccance Widdowsons Tables of Food free essay sample

Presentation Food sythesis tables are totally essential instruments for crafted by the dietitian and the human nutritionist. Each dietary solution is based on the information in the food tables. Each investigation of the connection among diet and wellbeing relies upon the utilization of food tables to compute supplement admission. It is fundamental thusly that the individuals who utilize the tables completely see how they are aggregated and what are their restrictions. Food tables need to re? ect the nourishments eaten in the way of life where they are to be utilized, as far as the sorts of nourishments and their beginnings. Where used to examine dietary admission information, plans that re? ect the nearby social examples are an extra prerequisite. As agrarian and food producing rehearses change, the food tables need to advance to stay aware of them. In the UK we are blessed in having a great arrangement of food tables. We will compose a custom article test on Mccance Widdowsons Tables of Food or then again any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page They have developed over a time of now almost 60 years and there is a keeping moving system for refreshing. In any case, this means the tables exist in a few releases. Clients need to comprehend when every release showed up and how each varied from its forerunners. They have to know which release has been utilized to investigate a given report. In the event that setting out on a reanalysis of old information they have to pick the most proper adaptation. In the event that setting out on examination of another investigation, they have to utilize the latest information. On the off chance that purchasing supplement examination programming they have to know which rendition of the tables are incorporated with the program, regardless of whether the scholars of the product will give ordinary updates as new information become accessible and whether the bundle has offices for the client either to add new nourishments or to refresh old ones. This paper brie? audits the development of the UK food tables and looks to explain a few disarrays that have showed up lately. First and second releases of McCance and Widdowson McCance and Widdowson’s Tables of Food Composition developed from early work by R. A. McCance. In 1925 he was given an award by the Me dical Research Council to contemplate the measure of sugar in nourishments utilized in the treatment 1 Correspondence: Dr Alison E. Dark, Medical Research Council, Dunn Clinical Nutrition Center, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2DH, UK.  © 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd 2 A. E. Dark and A. A. Paul t the purpose of utilization. They included distributed information for the most part from the third version of McCance and Widdowson, data from producers, the supplement arrangement of a generous number of plans determined from information in the third release and tentatively decided dampness misfortune, and a predetermined number of unique examinations completed by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist. The DHSS tables experienced a few adaptations. The ? rst (pilot 1963) adaptation was re? ned for the second (1967) form by dropping things not utilized and adding some saw as essential. A third (1969) form was basically an improvement and renumbering of the nourishments things in the subsequent adaptation. The food tables stayed unpublished however were promptly accessible and generally utilized by those leading dietary reviews during the 1960s and 1970s. A speedy method to distinguish which set of tables has been utilized in the coding of a specific study is to take a gander at the Code Number for an as often as possible utilized food. The codes numbers for ‘milk, ordinary’ for instance in 1963, 1967 and 1969, individually, were 7104, 701 and 008. of diabetes. Later he directed examinations specifically on the sythesis of eat (McCance Shipp, 1933) and leafy foods (McCance et al. , 1936). The ? rst release of the food tables (McCance Widdowson, 1940) was gathered from information for the most part from these early investigations and furthermore incorporated a few plans. A subsequent version distributed in 1946 (McCance Widdowson, 1946; Widdowson, 1961) included a greater amount of the significant wartime and post war nourishments, however was in any case minimal changed. The third version of McCance and Widdowson The third release of McCance and Widdowson (McCance Widdowson, 1960) was the ? rst one recognizable to numerous dietitians despite everything rehearsing. It was distributed in 1960 and developed the previous versions (Widdowson, 1961) by including values for nutrients and amino acids. The previous were drawn for the most part from an intensive pursuit of the writing and the last from a mix of writing information and new examinations. A wide scope of fundamental nourishments was shrouded in this version including numerous new investigations, however a lone a set number of plans were joined. Code numbers ran from 1 to 663, however all out sections numbered 797 the same number of passages for ? sh, products of the soil included both a passage for eatable segment and a section for the food weighed with nonedible waste (skin, bones, centers, shells). These utilized a similar code number with and without the suf? x a. A record of this update was given to the British Dietetic Association by Dr Widdowson herself in 1960 (Widdowson, 1961). The fourth release of McCance Widdowson (MW4) The fourth version of McCance and Widdowson’s food tables was distributed in 1978 (Paul Southgate, 1978). The standards utilized in arranging this release were completely set out in the general prologue to the tables, which is fundamental perusing for dietitians. This was a significant amendment with roughly 66% of the information being refreshed by new investigations or writing esteems. There was broad interview with dietititans and numerous new nourishments were included (Southgate Paul, 1978). This version included a bigger number of plans than the third release, however all things considered not the same number of as the DHSS tables. Code numbers extend from 001 to 969. There are two genuine enhancements to the fourth release of McCance Widdowson in that they contain information extra to MW4 and are not modifications of MW4 information. These are: 1 First enhancement to MW4 (Paul et al. , 1980). Amino acids and unsaturated fats per 100 g of food.  © 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd, J Hum Nutr Dietet 12, 1â€5 The DHSS Food Tables During the 1960s and 1970s the Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) set out on a progression of national studies of various areas of the populace utilizing 7day gauged diet records. Molly Disselduff (from the DHSS), the late Jean Robertson (from the MAFF) and Jean Marr (from the MRC) arranged a lot of food tables for investigating these reviews. Known as ‘The DHSS Food Tables’, these were set up to adapt to food as announced McCance Widdowson’s Tables of Food Composition The nourishments recorded and their code numbers are equivalent to in MW4. 2 Second enhancement to MW4 (Tan et al. , 1985). Worker nourishments. This enhancement contains nourishments chose from MW4 with code numbers as in MW4, along with numerous extra things given codes in 5000 arrangement (5001â€5237). These things were later fused into the updates of MW4 and in this manner these information have all been supplanted. 3 Revisions of the fourth release of McCance Widdowson After distribution of the enhancement on foreigner nourishments, MAFF, in relationship with the Royal Society of Chemistry, set out on an organized correction of the entire of the fourth version of McCance Widdowson. The update has been finished and distributed in segments, taking every one of the significant nutritional categories thusly. In spite of the fact that not all that assigned, these ‘Nine Supplements’ viably comprise the genuine ? fth release of McCance and Widdowson. The table beneath records the nine enhancements, the code numbers utilized in each and the reference with date of distribution. The latest enhancement in the arrangement covers unsaturated fats (MAFF, 1998). Food code numbers are held as in the corrections 1â€9 over, any new nourishments being relegated numbers inside the suitable nutrition type. The so-assigned ? fth release of McCance and Widdowson (MW5) The single volume aggregation of chose things that was distributed as the Fifth Edition f McCance and Widdowson (Holland et al. , 1991b) has created a lot of turmoil. Many have believed it to be a finished modification of the fourth release. It isn't. It is a constrained arrangement of information chose from the food tables accessible at the hour of distribution. It contains information from the ? rst four updated segments, sp ecifically oats, milk, vegetables and natural product (Revisions 1â€4 above). These still remain the latest distributed information. For the rest of the nutritional categories, nonetheless, the information were taken from the fourth release of McCance and Widdowson. In this manner the information for ? sh, meat and incidental nourishments in MW5 originated from MW4 and are presently obsolete as they have been supplanted by resulting updates (Revisions 5â€9 above, known as the enhancements to the ? fth version). This distribution (MW5) is still generally utilized, especially by understudies, since, as a solitary volume, it is more helpful and less expensive than the ‘Nine Supplements’. Nonetheless, it is basic to remember (I) that it doesn't contain the total arrangement of information accessible and (ii) that an enormous piece of the information isn't presently the most recent accessible information.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Launch Of LINX Smart Cycling Helmet By COROS †Free Samples

Question: Examine about the Launch Of LINX Smart Cycling Helmet. Answer: Presentation Enterprise is characterized as the means attempted by the business associations for planning, propelling and maintaining a business. In this way, enterprise permits the business associations to make something new, novel and inventive by including esteem and giving noteworthy exertion and time. Business enterprise needs to think about the essential social, mental and money related dangers that will help in getting reasonable fiscal prizes. This report features the dispatch of LINX savvy cycling head protector by COROS for the Australian market. The report sheds lights on the possibility of the item, the crucial propelling such an item by examining the business and contenders showcase. The report likewise incorporates the showcasing plan for propelling the item by choosing the objective clients just as assessing the basic dangers as far as the organization and the item. Foundation to the thought Thinking about the Australian market, COROS is expecting to dispatch a wellbeing related item for the cyclists. The organization is propelling LINX shrewd cycling cap for the Australian populace. COROS is situated in Perth, Australia. The Australian populace inclines toward cycling to a great extent because of medical advantage and awareness. This is on the grounds that the adolescent are Australia is exceptionally worried about their wellbeing and the general condition. Moreover, mountain cycling is a game that has increased high fame among the Australian populace in the ongoing years. Aside from the nearby populace in Australia, it has been seen that the sightseers likewise lean towards cycling for investigating the picturesque excellence of Australia. Subsequently, the organization is energized and to a great extent depending on the dispatch of the LINX shrewd cycling protective cap (Caserta 2012). The primary point and thought of propelling the LINX keen cycling cap is to introduce shrewd offices to the cyclists and impact their choice of receiving cycling for both day by day use and investigating Australia. Also, the organization point towards giving most extreme security to the cyclists. The utilization of the brilliant head protector will give chance to the riders to investigate the grand excellence of Australia and catch the occasions. In this manner, the cyclists will have the option to catch and record the Australian condition while cycling as opposed to investigate the delightful nation in vehicles. As a piece of working out, numerous young people incline toward cycling as opposed to going to the exercise center or having fitness coach. Along these lines, the protective cap likewise gives offices, for example, estimating heartbeat and recoding the quantity of calories consumed by the people in this manner, affecting the buying choice of the objective clients. The highli ghts remembered for the LINX brilliant protective cap are requested by the Australian market. Accordingly, the organization has propelled the keen head protector with the highlights that is profoundly requested by the Australian populace (Teng, Liang and Nguyen 2014 ). Strategic The organization needs increment the overall revenue, business and clients by propelling the savvy cap in the Australian populace. The head protector is one of its sorts because of the highlights, for example, making calls, catching and making recordings, voice empowered GPS route and estimating heartbeat and calories consumed. The organization points towards extending the business by making an interesting picture in the eye of the clients. Along these lines, the previously mentioned novel highlights will help the organization in hanging out in the Australian market from the contenders. Alongside giving such highlights, the organization additionally points towards guaranteeing wellbeing for the clients. In any case, the organization additionally points towards instructing and illuminating the cyclists the best possible utilization of the protective cap so as to maintain a strategic distance from mishaps because of the new highlights in the head protector. Such highlights have not bee n consolidated in the head protector before along these lines, the development acquired by the organization will help in connecting with the clients in future. The manageable business thought will help the organization in future for worldwide and universal development (Blanco, Cernicchi and Galvanetto 2014). Item offering The organization has fused wide scope of inventive and special highlights in the LINX keen cycling head protector. Guaranteeing security is the essential rationale of the organization for the cyclists. The organization while producing the cap by considering the wellbeing of the cyclists has utilized polycarbonate shell with EPS sway froth. The organization has utilized streamlined features upgraded ventilation up to 15 vents so as to diminish the degree of sound for the cyclists. This will permit the cyclists focus more on cycling instead of the outer sounds (Sheard and Corsini 2012). This will help in alleviating the odds of mishaps for the cyclists. The head protector is propelled in both medium and huge size with the goal that the item is accessible for the objective clients in the Australian market. The different inventive offices joined inside the protective cap incorporate voice empowered voice route, versatile offices and music offices. Bone conduction transducers with affectability up to 100 decibel have been utilized for fighting with voice calling and music listening offices (Abolfathi 2013). The clients for both day by day and practicing reason can utilize the cycling protective cap. Remembering the prerequisite, the organization has made the receiver wind safe. Along these lines, the voice empowered GPS route won't be hampered because of the element of wind safe receiver. The assembling material of the battery is lithium because of which the enduring intensity of the battery is as long as 10 hours out of each day. Along these lines, less battery is depleted because of the offices, for example, tuning in to music, recording and making calls. The similarity of the cap incorporates 4.0, iOS and android gadgets. The heaviness of the head protector has been considered by the organization as utilizing substantial cap for broad hours causing sprain and undeniable irritation of the cyclists (Van Den Oord estimated time of arrival l. 2012). Odds of shoulder and neck torment among the objective clients are alleviated by the organization by assembling a light weight cap Therefore, the heaviness of the LINX shrewd cycling protective cap is around 400 grams. Moreover, the customer item security commission guarantees the protective cap. One year guarantee has been given by the organization to the objective clients remembering extraordinary necessities, for example, disfunctioning and breakage (Ang and Kristoffersson 2013). Market examination Before the dispatch of the item in the Australian market, it is basic for the organization to direct an exhaustive examination in regard of the market and the contenders. This will empower the organization to choose and execute suitable advertising techniques as far as advancement, circulation, imaginativeness and valuing methodologies. Market examination will permit COROS to know about their position contrasted with the rivals in the market. Industry investigation Political: Under the parliamentary popular government, Australia is represented by the administrative constitution government (Bourke et al. 2012). Practical: The economy of Australia is one of the most grounded among the main nations due the nearness of assortment of common assets. The fundamental five standards dependent on which the Australian exchange is directed are unilaterism, non-segregation, resoluteness, detachment and straightforwardness (Hatfield-Dodds et al. 2015). Social: Aborigines are the locals of the Australian populace. In any case, English is the most normally utilized language in the nation after the European colonization (Stoeckl et al. 2013). Innovative: The web access by the Australian populace has expanded to a great extent throughout the years because of the mechanical introduction. The legislature of the nation has been encouraging the innovative work to a great extent because of the mechanical introduction (Jewell, Cherp and Riahi 2014). Lawful: Independence of legal executive, equity and rule of law frames the premise of the Australian lawful framework. The nation has one government framework just as eight domain and state (Cheung, Chan and Kajewski 2012) Ecological: The nation is wealthy in the normal assets and has enormous number of extraordinary verdure. In any case, the major natural difficulties incorporate sea dumping, a worldwide temperature alteration and protection of marine life (Chan et al. 2012). In view of the PESTLE examination of the nation, it very well may be proposed that the nation is confronting natural difficulties to a great extent. Broad employments of innovative headways are hampering the whole biological system of the nation. Additionally, the nation has a solid economy and stable economy. In this manner, the dispatch of LINXsmart cycling head protector is an incredible decision of item for the Australian market. Contender investigation The utilization of Porters five powers permitted the organization to investigate the rivals in the Australian market. Danger of new participants The potential dangers for the new items that are entering the market are the passage obstructions (E Dobbs 2014). The operational degree and the economy join to frame item separation, client steadfastness, structure of the expense and the exchanging cost. The protective cap producing industry is an enormous industry at the worldwide scale in this way, including high capital expense bringing about fixed significant expenses. The cap producing industry experiences high economy prompting effectivemanagement of the cost capital. This causes the organizations to deal with their monetary assets successfully and use it assets admirably (Yunna and Yisheng 2014). COROS point towards introducing savvy offices to the objective clients just as guaranteeing security. The imaginative and extraordinary highlights consolidated by the organization in the head protectors will support the item. The last factor is reliant on the organization and its administration methods, as the extension pace of the h ead protector producing industry is a lot of moderate. This is because of the numbness about the positive wellbeing and ecological effect of cycling that impacts the buying choice of protective caps among the Australian populace. Danger to substitute

Monday, July 27, 2020

Six Ways that SIPA OCS Can Help with Your Career COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Six Ways that SIPA OCS Can Help with Your Career COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog The Office of Career Services (OCS) provides students and alumni with tools to manage their professional development. OCS offers a variety of services to help current students and alumni find their career paths, such as individual career advising; required professional development courses; networking events, on-campus recruitment sessions, professional networking opportunities, and internship grants. Throughout the semester, OCS organizes numerous activities and services aimed at informing students about their options in internships and full time jobs. As a first year student, you will benefit from the professional panels where you can learn about possible employers and the procedure to apply to future positions. Some of the employers that have participated in these panels are: The Federal Reserve Bank of NY, the Central Intelligence Agency, Human Right Watch, Deloitte, Goldman Sachs, The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and Eurasia Group. As career development is a tenet of SIPA’s core curriculum, the OCS supports students’ career paths in the following ways: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT   The Professional Development class, which is administered through OCS, heightens the awareness and involvement of students in career planning.  This mandatory half-credit course develops the skills needed to compete effectively in the international and public affairs job markets.  Instructors provide direction on writing resumes and cover letters, job search tactics, successful interviewing, networking, negotiating employment offers, and other key career topics. INTERNSHIP REQUIREMENT Students are required to conduct an internship as part of their degree requirement, and this is also administered through OCS.   The internship is typically done in the summer between the first and second year, although it can be completed at any time during the program. INDIVIDUAL SERVICES On an individual level, OCS career advisers provide students and alumni with career advice, job search strategy tips, resume and cover letter reviews, and general career information.  OCS also maintains the SIPA Career Coaching (SIPACC) program, which is comprised of alumni working in a variety of jobs who provide industry specific information and advice.   Students can arrange appointments once they have registered for classes in August through SIPAlink, our recruitment software.  (See more  ) WEEKLY ONLINE NEWSLETTER To update students on programming and services, OCS compiles a weekly newsletter that lists information on career events, fellowship opportunities, upcoming recruitment visits, job/internship postings, and other essential information for their job search.   (See more  ) JOB DATABASE OCS offers a database of current positions, including internships, for both current students and alumni in a variety of professional fields. The database, which can be access through  SIPAlink, has proved to be quite useful to current students in helping them to find internships. If you are curious on what other things OCS does, visit our past  blog post  or go to the SIPA OCS website:  http://new.sipa.columbia.edu/careers/career-services. CAREER COACHING Finally, SIPA Career Coaching  (SIPACC) is offered free of charge by experts in the field.  SIPACCs are full-time professionals who volunteer throughout the year to offer industry-specific knowledge to current students.  Sessions run 30 minutes and Seeples can sign up for them in SIPAlink, SIPA’s job and internship database. Within the sessions, SIPA Career Coaches will: Dispense industry-specific job advice in their field(s). Share their knowledge about various career opportunities related to the advisee’s SIPA concentration or specialization. Establish steps that should be undertaken by the advisee in order to advance in a particular industry. Offer other career advice at their discretion. SIPA students and alumni can sign up for  three  coaching sessions per semester. SIPA’s Office of Career Services is another reason why SIPA may be the place for you. We hope to see you this coming year!

Friday, May 22, 2020

Christian Symbolism in the Old Man and the Sea - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 696 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/08/16 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: The Old Man and The Sea Essay Did you like this example? The Old Man and the Sea may seem like a shallow book on its face level, but many extensive themes are evident throughout the book. Specifically, Christian Symbolism is apparent throughout. These are the themes displayed in my artwork, which shows Santiago as a Christ-Like figure. This is because he persevered through pain and suffering, and turned it into reward and victory, just how Jesus went through pain on the cross, but renewed his life and won. These themes are initially evident in the book during his struggle with the fish. First, while the old man is fighting the marlin, his hands are cut by the fishing line. The cuts not only symbolize the wounds on Jesus hands while he was on the cross, but how he went through pain and suffering in his crucifixion. Santiago is a direct portrayal of Jesus and his suffering. The old man is willing to suffer and maybe even sacrifice his own life, just how Jesus was willing to do the same. Also during the fight, on page 107, Hemingway describes a noise Santiago has made, Just a noise such as a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his hands and into the woods (107). This is a direct association of Santiago and Jesus Christ. This quote relates to how Jesus hands were nailed to the cross, and a sound he might have made when nails were driven through his hands into the wood. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Christian Symbolism in the Old Man and the Sea" essay for you Create order Another example of Santiago being a Christ life figure is how he carried the mast of his ship up the hill and back home. This alludes to Jesus walk towards Calvary with the cross on his back. Also, towards the very end of the book, when Santiago lays down on his bed, Hemingway describes him laying down face down with his arms out and his palms/hands up. This evokes a picture of how Jesus Christ was suffering on the cross. He does this to even further link Santiago to Jesus. The whole story draws similarities between the two, where they both turn pain and loss into benefits and victory. Because of how often they relate, I chose to draw Santiago as Jesus to show this connection and how Hemmingway relies on this symbolism as a major overarching theme in the book. The parallels between the two drive how the old man is willing to sacrifice for the greater good, and the praise that comes from this sacrifice. He matches the two to relate to how Jesus sacrificed himself for the greater good of man. This connection also develops other, more face value, themes that Jesus and Santiago both show. Santiago being a Christ like figure plays into the theme of perseverance. You must go through some discomfort and a fight to yield rewards. Persevering and sticking through hardships results in rewards. Both Jesus and Santiago went through tough times but eventually their struggles bore fruits. In Santiagos case, the strenuous fight with the marlin shows this because he eventually killed the fish and ended his fishing drought. Also, the book shows how skill of mind is more important than brawn. Jesus didnt actually fight people with his hands in wars, he used his knowledge of God and stories to gain followers and baptize people. Santiago did the same where his knowledge and experience of the sea makes up for his weak self (being an old man). He may not have been able to finish the fish if he didnt have knowledge of the oceans and fishing. Santiago won by outsmarting the fish, rather than trying to forcibly and physically beat it. Both used their minds and knowledge more, rather than their physical strength to do their work. It again shows how the mind is more important than physical strength. Santiago is symbolized as a christ figure throughout the novel, both Jesus and Santiago were fixed to their faith in times of uncertainty and suffering. Santiago is meant to symbolize Christ, his teachings, and his struggles during his crucifixion. All of these reasons relate to the connection between Jesus and Santiago, and it is why Jesus was drawn in the art, to show this relationship.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Movie Review Get From The Car - 1041 Words

Get in the car. Emma hears her mom say to her as she s still waking up. Emma has no clue what s going on. She asks her mom, Where are we going? Her mom doesn t answer her. Emma is so confused she has no clue where they are going or why they are leaving. She had always had a pretty good life, she has plenty of friends, a boyfriend, she s was even the cheer captain. Emma is fifteen, she was born and raised in a little town called Norton, Kansas. They have been in the car for about three hours now and Emma is sound asleep. What are we going to tell her? asks Emma s mother. Nothing. Replies Emma s father. They show up in this little town outside of Minneapolis, called Eagan. Welcome to our new house! says Emma s father. The†¦show more content†¦Every family seems like they are all a little bit different. Emma thinks it is kind of weird but tries not to pay too much attention to it. One of the families in the cul-de-sac homeschools all the girls who live around them. Emma parents have decided that that’s where they want Emma to go to school. She has been trying to make friends with all the girls in the houses around her but they all seem so different. The family who lives next to Emma seems very nice but Emma has never heard any of them talk. Emma believes that her parents are hiding something from her. She doesn’t know much about their past and they still haven t told her why they moved. She doesn t like going to school since she doesn t have any friends and her teacher is very strict. Emma s parents told her they work as accountants but she just found out that was a lie. Emma found a paper in her mother s brief case with all the lies her parents have told her and how to cover them up. Emma decided to skip school one day and follow her parents to see where they go. She sees her parents getting ready to get into their car so she hides in the back seat. Emma can t tell where they are going but she doesn t remember ever being in this part of tow n. Her parents stop the car and get out Emma is scared she doesn’t know what to do or how to follow someone. She gets out of the car and stays a couple of feet behind her parents. They go into this mysterious building, it

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Earhquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia Free Essays

string(102) " caution is advised for coastal residents in Northern Sumatra and in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands\." On December 26, 2004, mass destruction and devastation was the result of a large earthquake off of the West Coast of Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The earthquake began in the early morning on Sunday at 7:58:53 AM, and wreaked havoc on thousands in the affected areas. BBC News reported on the earthquake, stating that â€Å"Sunday’s tremor – the fourth largest since 1990 – had a particularly widespread effect because it seems to have taken place just below the surface of the ocean, analysts say† (BBC News). We will write a custom essay sample on Earhquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia or any similar topic only for you Order Now The earthquake had significant effect on the region and the people living in these regions. Not only was the earthquake damaging and devastating, but the quake was also the cause of a correlated tsunami that caused even more damage and destruction to the area. â€Å"This earthquake is the largest event in the world in 40 years, and produced the most devastating tsunami recorded in history† (Lay). â€Å"Coastal communities across South Asia – and more than 4,000 km away in Africa – were swept away and homes engulfed by waves up to 10 m high after the quake created a tsunami that sped across the ocean† (BBC News). The geographic location of the Earthquake in absolute location is 3. 316? North, 95. 854? East; and the relative location of the quake was off the West Coast of Northern Sumatra, which was 155 miles South Southeast of Banda Aceh, Sumatra Indonesia, and 185 miles West of Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia (USGS). The earthquake that shook the West of Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, as well as many other neighboring countries, was of a great 9. 0 magnitude on the Richter scale. â€Å"At the source of the earthquake, the interface between the India plate and the Burma plate dips about 10 degrees to the east-northeast. The subducting plate dips more steeply at greater depths†(USGS). The quake occurred when the Earth’s crust, a 1,200 km segment of the crust, shifted beneath the Indian Ocean, as far as 10 to 20 meters below (Marshall). As the crust shifted and the quake went into motion, a substantial amount of energy was released. Energy released by this overwhelming earthquake was an â€Å"estimated 20X10^17 Joules, or 475,000 kilotons (475 megatons) of TNT, or the equivalent of 23,000 Nagasaki bombs† (Marshall). All of this stored elastic energy that was released by the earthquake, in turn initiated the† uplift of the seafloor and the displacement of billions of gallons of seawater† (Marshall). These events lead to a massive tsunami. â€Å"Over a period of 10 hours, the tsunami triggered by the quake struck the coasts of over 12 countries† (Marshall). â€Å"The region where the great earthquake occurred on 26 December 2004, marks the seismic boundary formed by the movement of the Indo-Australian plate as it collides with the Burma subplate, which is part of the Eurasian plate† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"For millions of years the India tectonic plate has drifted and moved in a north/northeast direction, colliding with the Eurasian tectonic plate and forming the Himalayan Mountains. As a result of such migration and collision with both the Eurasian and the Australian tectonic plates, the Indian plate’s eastern boundary is a diffuse zone of seismicity and deformation, characterized by the extensive faulting and numerous large earthquakes† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"Previous major earthquakes have occurred further north, in the Andaman Sea and further South along the Sumatra, Java and Sunda section of one of the earth’s greatest fault zones, a subduction zone known as the Sunda Trench. Slippage and plate subduction make this region highly seismic† (Pararas-Carayannis). In addition to the Sunda Trench, the Sumatra Fault is responsible for seismic activity on the Island of Sumatra. This is a strike-slip type of fault which extends along the entire length of the island† (Pararas-Carayannis). East of northwest Sumatra, â€Å"a divergent plate boundary separates the Burma plate from the Sunda plate† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"More specifically, in the region off the west coast of northern Sumatra, the India plate is moving in a northeastward direction at about 5 to 5. 5 cm per year relative to the Burma plate† (Pararas-Carayannis). The region where the earthquake occurred –and particularly the Andaman Sea- is a very active seismic area. Also Sumatra is in the center of one of the world’s most seismically active regions. Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 8 struck Sumatra in 1797, 1833, and 1861† (Pararas-Carayannis). It is obvious that Indonesia is an area that is highly susceptible to earthquakes, because of the shifts and movements of the tectonic plates that Indonesia lies on. â€Å"Indonesia is surrounded by four major tectonic plates, the Pacific, the Eurasian, the Australian, and the Philippine plates. All these major tectonic plates and their subplates are presently active. Major earthquakes and tsunamis can be expected in the semi-enclosed seas and along the Indian Ocean side of Indonesia. Major earthquakes in the semi-enclosed seas can generate destructive local tsunamis in the Sulu, Banda, and Java Seas. Major earthquakes along the Sunda Trench can generate tsunamis that can be destructive not only in Indonesia but to other countries bordering the Indian Ocean† (Pararas-Carayannis). The major tectonic feature in the region is the Sunda Arc that extends approximately 5,600 km between the Andaman Islands in the northwest and the Banda Arc in the east. The Sunda Arc consists of three primary segments; the Sumatra segment, the Sunda Strait Segment and the Java Segment. These locations represent the area of greatest seismic exposure†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"In the immediate vicinity off Northern Sumatra, most of the stress and energy that had accumulated were released by the crustal movement that caused the 26 December 2004 earthquake. The subduction of the India tectonic plate underneath the Burma plate cause upward thrusting of an extensive block and generated the destructive tsunami† (Pararas-Carayannis). As the Burma plate â€Å"snapped upward, it was a huge geologic event. The dislocation of the boundary between the Indian and Burma plates took place over a length of 745 miles and within three days had set off 69 aftershocks† (Elliot). â€Å"The aftersocks represent nature’s way of restoring stability and temporary equilibrium. It is unlikely that a destructive tsunami will occur again soon in the same region, however caution is advised for coastal residents in Northern Sumatra and in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands. You read "Earhquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia" in category "Essay examples" If an afterschock is strong enough and it is strongly felt, evacuation to higher elevation is advised. In fact, strong shaking of the ground is nature’s warning that a tsunami may be imminent† (Pararas-Carayannis). The natural disasters also create natural warning signs that more damage may be upcoming. The aftershocks suggest that the earthquake rupture had a maximum length of 1200—1300 km parallel to the Sunda trench and a width of over 100 km perpendicular to the earthquake source† (USGS). Many things can be taken into account, analyzed, and hopefully used in the future to reduce the number of casualties and losses as a result of an earthquake of such magnitude. The importance of this earthquake and its effects on the communities devastated by this earthquake are many. â€Å"According to the latest official reports (Ministry of Health) 166,320 people were killed, 127,774 are still missing and 655,000 people were displaced in Northern Sumatra. A total of 110 bridges were destroyed, 5 seaports and 2 airports sustained considerable damage, and 82% of all roads were severely damaged. The death toll is expected to rise† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"There were many lessons already learned from this tragic event in Southeast Asia. Many more lessons will be learned in the near future as this tragedy unfolds and reveals the many failures to value and protect human life in this neglected region of the world. Indeed a bitter lesson was already learned that great earthquakes and destructive tsunamis do occur in this region† (Pararas-Carayannis). The communities of people living in this region that is highly susceptible to earthquakes and tsunamis could learn important information about the somewhat safer areas to reside, or safety techniques to carry out and be aware of while in the midst of a natural disaster. â€Å"The magnitude of the tsunami disaster could have been mitigated with a proper disaster preparedness plan and a functioning early warning system† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"However the strong shaking by the earthquake should have been nature’s warning for local residents that a tsunami was imminent and they could have run to higher ground to save their lives. A simple program of public education and awareness of the potential hazard could have saved many lives in the immediate area† (Pararas-Carayannis). It would be imagined after having at least four earthquakes of 9. 0 magnitude or greater in the region, that residents, public officials, and even tourists could easily find or allowed , much less given, information needed to promote awareness for the possible catastrophes and preventive methods for any type of damage that can be sustained and anticipated. For the more distant coastlines of India, Shri-Lanka, and other locations in the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean, there was ample time to issue a warning –if only an early warning system existed for this region of the world and if there was a way of communicating the information to the coastal residents of threatened areas. No such warning system exists at the present time –the lack of disaster awareness or preparedness is appalling. A simple educational program on hazard awareness could have prevented the extensive losses of lives –particularly of children. One third of those that perished were children† (Pararas-Carayannis). The severity of damages resulting from the earthquake and subsequent tsunami is devastating, and what makes this natural disaster even more tragic is to know that some preventive measures could have been taken. There are adequate instruments and warning systems that have been developed and are currently being used currently in other locations around the world where devices sufficiently predict and send signal out for the warning of tsunamis. It is often because of insufficient funds or simple neglect for an organized plan of action to take in cases of emergencies as such. â€Å"India and Shri-Lanka are not members of the International Warning System in the Pacific and they have not shown interest in joining any regional early warning systems. An erroneous belief has persisted that tsunamis do not occur frequently enough to warrantee participation into a regional tsunami warning system. Local government authorities in the region did not even have a plan for disseminating warning information to threatened coastlines –even if a warning had been provided. There was not even a basic educational plan for disaster preparedness. It should be obvious that such a program is necessary to prevent similar tragedies in the future† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"In Sri-Lanka alone, more than one million people are displaced and aid workers are under pressure to ensure they have clean water and sanitation to prevent an outbreak of disease† (BBC News). This earthquake is significantly important to the people affected in the surrounding communities, as well as the geologic setting of this disaster. â€Å"Five main reasons why this disaster was so deadly: 1) High population density on low-lying coastal areas of the Indian Ocean, 2) Short distance from tsunami source to populated low lying coasts, leaving little time for warning, 3) No tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean, 4)Poor and developing countries with vulnerable infrastructure and minimal disaster preparedness, 5) Little public awareness of tsunami hazard† (Marshall). It is impossible to be able to prevent natural disasters from occurring, but there are some measures that can be taken to help prevent the cause of some injuries and deaths. The measures that can be taken to prevent more harm than already caused may seem insignificant in the grand scheme of the disaster, yet the smallest preventive measures and knowledge to be aware of certain signals to promote safety awareness, such as knowing when to move to higher ground after initial shaking or some basic understanding of simple, but possibly life-saving medical treatments. It is apparent that Indonesia and surrounding countries are vulnerable to earthquakes with possible tsunamis that may cause mass destruction. Residents in Indonesia and surrounding countries should be informed and aware of the potential disaster zones they live in, in efforts to take some sort of preventive procedures such as building more secure homes on more stable location, to keep medical aid kits stocked and easily accessible, and emergency plans of action if disaster strikes and a family is separated for example. The damage resulting from the 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia Earthquake was remarkably widespread, causing extensive devastation to the land, buildings, and communities including hundreds of thousands deaths and injuries across thousands of kilometers It is also obvious that Indonesia and majority of the adjacent countries need to significantly work to create a disaster plan, educational programs to make people knowledgeable about nature’s hazards, and to adapt a system to detect and transmit information and messages for early warning signs. The great amount of destruction and loss of human life due to these kinds of natural hazards cannot be prevented, but the amount of devastation suffered would be substantially less if these precautions were taken advantage of and actually put into effect. How to cite Earhquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Sex Linked Diseases free essay sample

Acid Maltase Deficiency: It is an autosomal recessive disorder, in which the defect is in the gene for the acid maltase enzyme, which leads to accumulation of glycogen stored in muscles. Glycogen build up, weakens the muscles of a patient suffering from this disorder. This may affect respiratory muscles resulting in respiratory failure. It is also known as the  Pompe Disease. Although, in childhood and adolescence the symptoms show slow progress and are less severe, infantile forms cause death within first year, if not treated on time. Albinism: Albinism is a congenital disorder in which there is little or completely no production of melanin in hair, skin and iris of the eyes. Hence albinos (people suffering from albinism) have light colored skin, hair and eyes. It is caused due to inheritance of recessive alleles from parents. This disorder cant be cured. However, the symptoms can be alleviated with the help of surgical treatment, vision aids and using device that provide protection from sun. We will write a custom essay sample on Sex Linked Diseases or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Alzheimers Disease: Alzheimers disease is the most common form of dementia which is characterized by gradual memory loss, irritability, mood swings, confusion and language breakdown. Although, scientists are not unequivocal about the cause of this disease, the most widely accepted reason is the amyloid cascade hypothesis, that suggests excess production of a small protein fragment called ABeta (A? ). Also known as Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT) or simply Alzheimers, this is a degenerative disease and scientists are yet to find its cure. However, balanced diet, mental exercises and stimulation are often suggested for prevention and managing of the disease. Angelman syndrome: It is a neurological disorder that was first described by a British pediatrician, Dr. Harry Angelman, in 1965. This disorder is marked by intellectual and developmental delays, severe speech impairment and problems in movement and balance, recurrent seizures and small heads. Children with Angelman syndrome typically have a happy demeanor. They are hyperactive with short attention span and show jerky hand movements. These children appear normal at birth. This genetic disorder in human is a classical case of genetic imprinting, in which the disorder is caused due to deletion or activation of the maternally inherited chromosome 15. Its sister syndrome is the Prader-Willi syndrome in which there is a similar loss or inactivation of the paternally inherited chromosome 15. Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: It is a pleiotropic recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by obesity, polydactyly, deterioration of rod and cone cells, mental retardation and defect in the gonads and kidney disease. It is difficult to diagnose Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, specially in the young. As no cure is yet known for the disorder, treatment is concentrated on specific organs and systems. Barth Syndrome: A rare but serious sex linked genetic disorder, the Barth syndrome is caused due to mutations or alterations in the BTHS gene. The gene is located on the long arm of X chromosome. This disorder primarily affects the heart. Besides heart defects, Barth syndrome results in poor skeletal musculature, short stature, mitochondrial abnormalities and deficiency of white blood cells. There is no cure for this disorder. Treatment focuses on managing the symptoms and preventing infections. Bipolar Disorder: Also known as manic depressive disorder or bipolar affective disorder, individuals suffering from bipolar disorder suffer from highly elevated moods, referred to as mania or episodes of severe depression. Research shows that both genetic as well as environmental factors are responsible for this disorder. Medicines as well as psychotherapy is found to be useful in dealing with the severe mood swings associated with the disorder. Jackson-Weiss Syndrome: It is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder in which there are foot abnormalities, and premature fusion of bones in the skull lead to deformations of the facial features (widely spaced eyes, bulging forehead) and the skull. In this syndrome, the great toes are short and wide and turn away from the rest of the toes. Some toes may be fused or have some other abnormalities. The mutation is caused in the FGFR2 gene which is located in chromosome 10. Treatment involves corrective surgery for deformed bones in face and foot. Klinefelter Syndrome: It is the most common sex linked genetic disorder. In which males have an extra X chromosome. Hence ,this disorder is also known as  47, XXY  or  XXY syndrome. The most common symptom is infertility. Besides this, males with the XXY syndrome have impaired physical, language and social developments. As these individuals produce less testosterone than other males, such teenagers may be less muscular and have less facial hair than their peers. The presence of the extra X chromosome cant be undone.