Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Mccance Widdowsons Tables of Food free essay sample

Presentation Food sythesis tables are totally essential instruments for crafted by the dietitian and the human nutritionist. Each dietary solution is based on the information in the food tables. Each investigation of the connection among diet and wellbeing relies upon the utilization of food tables to compute supplement admission. It is fundamental thusly that the individuals who utilize the tables completely see how they are aggregated and what are their restrictions. Food tables need to re? ect the nourishments eaten in the way of life where they are to be utilized, as far as the sorts of nourishments and their beginnings. Where used to examine dietary admission information, plans that re? ect the nearby social examples are an extra prerequisite. As agrarian and food producing rehearses change, the food tables need to advance to stay aware of them. In the UK we are blessed in having a great arrangement of food tables. We will compose a custom article test on Mccance Widdowsons Tables of Food or then again any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page They have developed over a time of now almost 60 years and there is a keeping moving system for refreshing. In any case, this means the tables exist in a few releases. Clients need to comprehend when every release showed up and how each varied from its forerunners. They have to know which release has been utilized to investigate a given report. In the event that setting out on a reanalysis of old information they have to pick the most proper adaptation. In the event that setting out on examination of another investigation, they have to utilize the latest information. On the off chance that purchasing supplement examination programming they have to know which rendition of the tables are incorporated with the program, regardless of whether the scholars of the product will give ordinary updates as new information become accessible and whether the bundle has offices for the client either to add new nourishments or to refresh old ones. This paper brie? audits the development of the UK food tables and looks to explain a few disarrays that have showed up lately. First and second releases of McCance and Widdowson McCance and Widdowson’s Tables of Food Composition developed from early work by R. A. McCance. In 1925 he was given an award by the Me dical Research Council to contemplate the measure of sugar in nourishments utilized in the treatment 1 Correspondence: Dr Alison E. Dark, Medical Research Council, Dunn Clinical Nutrition Center, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2DH, UK.  © 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd 2 A. E. Dark and A. A. Paul t the purpose of utilization. They included distributed information for the most part from the third version of McCance and Widdowson, data from producers, the supplement arrangement of a generous number of plans determined from information in the third release and tentatively decided dampness misfortune, and a predetermined number of unique examinations completed by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist. The DHSS tables experienced a few adaptations. The ? rst (pilot 1963) adaptation was re? ned for the second (1967) form by dropping things not utilized and adding some saw as essential. A third (1969) form was basically an improvement and renumbering of the nourishments things in the subsequent adaptation. The food tables stayed unpublished however were promptly accessible and generally utilized by those leading dietary reviews during the 1960s and 1970s. A speedy method to distinguish which set of tables has been utilized in the coding of a specific study is to take a gander at the Code Number for an as often as possible utilized food. The codes numbers for ‘milk, ordinary’ for instance in 1963, 1967 and 1969, individually, were 7104, 701 and 008. of diabetes. Later he directed examinations specifically on the sythesis of eat (McCance Shipp, 1933) and leafy foods (McCance et al. , 1936). The ? rst release of the food tables (McCance Widdowson, 1940) was gathered from information for the most part from these early investigations and furthermore incorporated a few plans. A subsequent version distributed in 1946 (McCance Widdowson, 1946; Widdowson, 1961) included a greater amount of the significant wartime and post war nourishments, however was in any case minimal changed. The third version of McCance and Widdowson The third release of McCance and Widdowson (McCance Widdowson, 1960) was the ? rst one recognizable to numerous dietitians despite everything rehearsing. It was distributed in 1960 and developed the previous versions (Widdowson, 1961) by including values for nutrients and amino acids. The previous were drawn for the most part from an intensive pursuit of the writing and the last from a mix of writing information and new examinations. A wide scope of fundamental nourishments was shrouded in this version including numerous new investigations, however a lone a set number of plans were joined. Code numbers ran from 1 to 663, however all out sections numbered 797 the same number of passages for ? sh, products of the soil included both a passage for eatable segment and a section for the food weighed with nonedible waste (skin, bones, centers, shells). These utilized a similar code number with and without the suf? x a. A record of this update was given to the British Dietetic Association by Dr Widdowson herself in 1960 (Widdowson, 1961). The fourth release of McCance Widdowson (MW4) The fourth version of McCance and Widdowson’s food tables was distributed in 1978 (Paul Southgate, 1978). The standards utilized in arranging this release were completely set out in the general prologue to the tables, which is fundamental perusing for dietitians. This was a significant amendment with roughly 66% of the information being refreshed by new investigations or writing esteems. There was broad interview with dietititans and numerous new nourishments were included (Southgate Paul, 1978). This version included a bigger number of plans than the third release, however all things considered not the same number of as the DHSS tables. Code numbers extend from 001 to 969. There are two genuine enhancements to the fourth release of McCance Widdowson in that they contain information extra to MW4 and are not modifications of MW4 information. These are: 1 First enhancement to MW4 (Paul et al. , 1980). Amino acids and unsaturated fats per 100 g of food.  © 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd, J Hum Nutr Dietet 12, 1â€5 The DHSS Food Tables During the 1960s and 1970s the Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) set out on a progression of national studies of various areas of the populace utilizing 7day gauged diet records. Molly Disselduff (from the DHSS), the late Jean Robertson (from the MAFF) and Jean Marr (from the MRC) arranged a lot of food tables for investigating these reviews. Known as ‘The DHSS Food Tables’, these were set up to adapt to food as announced McCance Widdowson’s Tables of Food Composition The nourishments recorded and their code numbers are equivalent to in MW4. 2 Second enhancement to MW4 (Tan et al. , 1985). Worker nourishments. This enhancement contains nourishments chose from MW4 with code numbers as in MW4, along with numerous extra things given codes in 5000 arrangement (5001â€5237). These things were later fused into the updates of MW4 and in this manner these information have all been supplanted. 3 Revisions of the fourth release of McCance Widdowson After distribution of the enhancement on foreigner nourishments, MAFF, in relationship with the Royal Society of Chemistry, set out on an organized correction of the entire of the fourth version of McCance Widdowson. The update has been finished and distributed in segments, taking every one of the significant nutritional categories thusly. In spite of the fact that not all that assigned, these ‘Nine Supplements’ viably comprise the genuine ? fth release of McCance and Widdowson. The table beneath records the nine enhancements, the code numbers utilized in each and the reference with date of distribution. The latest enhancement in the arrangement covers unsaturated fats (MAFF, 1998). Food code numbers are held as in the corrections 1â€9 over, any new nourishments being relegated numbers inside the suitable nutrition type. The so-assigned ? fth release of McCance and Widdowson (MW5) The single volume aggregation of chose things that was distributed as the Fifth Edition f McCance and Widdowson (Holland et al. , 1991b) has created a lot of turmoil. Many have believed it to be a finished modification of the fourth release. It isn't. It is a constrained arrangement of information chose from the food tables accessible at the hour of distribution. It contains information from the ? rst four updated segments, sp ecifically oats, milk, vegetables and natural product (Revisions 1â€4 above). These still remain the latest distributed information. For the rest of the nutritional categories, nonetheless, the information were taken from the fourth release of McCance and Widdowson. In this manner the information for ? sh, meat and incidental nourishments in MW5 originated from MW4 and are presently obsolete as they have been supplanted by resulting updates (Revisions 5â€9 above, known as the enhancements to the ? fth version). This distribution (MW5) is still generally utilized, especially by understudies, since, as a solitary volume, it is more helpful and less expensive than the ‘Nine Supplements’. Nonetheless, it is basic to remember (I) that it doesn't contain the total arrangement of information accessible and (ii) that an enormous piece of the information isn't presently the most recent accessible information.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Launch Of LINX Smart Cycling Helmet By COROS †Free Samples

Question: Examine about the Launch Of LINX Smart Cycling Helmet. Answer: Presentation Enterprise is characterized as the means attempted by the business associations for planning, propelling and maintaining a business. In this way, enterprise permits the business associations to make something new, novel and inventive by including esteem and giving noteworthy exertion and time. Business enterprise needs to think about the essential social, mental and money related dangers that will help in getting reasonable fiscal prizes. This report features the dispatch of LINX savvy cycling head protector by COROS for the Australian market. The report sheds lights on the possibility of the item, the crucial propelling such an item by examining the business and contenders showcase. The report likewise incorporates the showcasing plan for propelling the item by choosing the objective clients just as assessing the basic dangers as far as the organization and the item. Foundation to the thought Thinking about the Australian market, COROS is expecting to dispatch a wellbeing related item for the cyclists. The organization is propelling LINX shrewd cycling cap for the Australian populace. COROS is situated in Perth, Australia. The Australian populace inclines toward cycling to a great extent because of medical advantage and awareness. This is on the grounds that the adolescent are Australia is exceptionally worried about their wellbeing and the general condition. Moreover, mountain cycling is a game that has increased high fame among the Australian populace in the ongoing years. Aside from the nearby populace in Australia, it has been seen that the sightseers likewise lean towards cycling for investigating the picturesque excellence of Australia. Subsequently, the organization is energized and to a great extent depending on the dispatch of the LINX shrewd cycling protective cap (Caserta 2012). The primary point and thought of propelling the LINX keen cycling cap is to introduce shrewd offices to the cyclists and impact their choice of receiving cycling for both day by day use and investigating Australia. Also, the organization point towards giving most extreme security to the cyclists. The utilization of the brilliant head protector will give chance to the riders to investigate the grand excellence of Australia and catch the occasions. In this manner, the cyclists will have the option to catch and record the Australian condition while cycling as opposed to investigate the delightful nation in vehicles. As a piece of working out, numerous young people incline toward cycling as opposed to going to the exercise center or having fitness coach. Along these lines, the protective cap likewise gives offices, for example, estimating heartbeat and recoding the quantity of calories consumed by the people in this manner, affecting the buying choice of the objective clients. The highli ghts remembered for the LINX brilliant protective cap are requested by the Australian market. Accordingly, the organization has propelled the keen head protector with the highlights that is profoundly requested by the Australian populace (Teng, Liang and Nguyen 2014 ). Strategic The organization needs increment the overall revenue, business and clients by propelling the savvy cap in the Australian populace. The head protector is one of its sorts because of the highlights, for example, making calls, catching and making recordings, voice empowered GPS route and estimating heartbeat and calories consumed. The organization points towards extending the business by making an interesting picture in the eye of the clients. Along these lines, the previously mentioned novel highlights will help the organization in hanging out in the Australian market from the contenders. Alongside giving such highlights, the organization additionally points towards guaranteeing wellbeing for the clients. In any case, the organization additionally points towards instructing and illuminating the cyclists the best possible utilization of the protective cap so as to maintain a strategic distance from mishaps because of the new highlights in the head protector. Such highlights have not bee n consolidated in the head protector before along these lines, the development acquired by the organization will help in connecting with the clients in future. The manageable business thought will help the organization in future for worldwide and universal development (Blanco, Cernicchi and Galvanetto 2014). Item offering The organization has fused wide scope of inventive and special highlights in the LINX keen cycling head protector. Guaranteeing security is the essential rationale of the organization for the cyclists. The organization while producing the cap by considering the wellbeing of the cyclists has utilized polycarbonate shell with EPS sway froth. The organization has utilized streamlined features upgraded ventilation up to 15 vents so as to diminish the degree of sound for the cyclists. This will permit the cyclists focus more on cycling instead of the outer sounds (Sheard and Corsini 2012). This will help in alleviating the odds of mishaps for the cyclists. The head protector is propelled in both medium and huge size with the goal that the item is accessible for the objective clients in the Australian market. The different inventive offices joined inside the protective cap incorporate voice empowered voice route, versatile offices and music offices. Bone conduction transducers with affectability up to 100 decibel have been utilized for fighting with voice calling and music listening offices (Abolfathi 2013). The clients for both day by day and practicing reason can utilize the cycling protective cap. Remembering the prerequisite, the organization has made the receiver wind safe. Along these lines, the voice empowered GPS route won't be hampered because of the element of wind safe receiver. The assembling material of the battery is lithium because of which the enduring intensity of the battery is as long as 10 hours out of each day. Along these lines, less battery is depleted because of the offices, for example, tuning in to music, recording and making calls. The similarity of the cap incorporates 4.0, iOS and android gadgets. The heaviness of the head protector has been considered by the organization as utilizing substantial cap for broad hours causing sprain and undeniable irritation of the cyclists (Van Den Oord estimated time of arrival l. 2012). Odds of shoulder and neck torment among the objective clients are alleviated by the organization by assembling a light weight cap Therefore, the heaviness of the LINX shrewd cycling protective cap is around 400 grams. Moreover, the customer item security commission guarantees the protective cap. One year guarantee has been given by the organization to the objective clients remembering extraordinary necessities, for example, disfunctioning and breakage (Ang and Kristoffersson 2013). Market examination Before the dispatch of the item in the Australian market, it is basic for the organization to direct an exhaustive examination in regard of the market and the contenders. This will empower the organization to choose and execute suitable advertising techniques as far as advancement, circulation, imaginativeness and valuing methodologies. Market examination will permit COROS to know about their position contrasted with the rivals in the market. Industry investigation Political: Under the parliamentary popular government, Australia is represented by the administrative constitution government (Bourke et al. 2012). Practical: The economy of Australia is one of the most grounded among the main nations due the nearness of assortment of common assets. The fundamental five standards dependent on which the Australian exchange is directed are unilaterism, non-segregation, resoluteness, detachment and straightforwardness (Hatfield-Dodds et al. 2015). Social: Aborigines are the locals of the Australian populace. In any case, English is the most normally utilized language in the nation after the European colonization (Stoeckl et al. 2013). Innovative: The web access by the Australian populace has expanded to a great extent throughout the years because of the mechanical introduction. The legislature of the nation has been encouraging the innovative work to a great extent because of the mechanical introduction (Jewell, Cherp and Riahi 2014). Lawful: Independence of legal executive, equity and rule of law frames the premise of the Australian lawful framework. The nation has one government framework just as eight domain and state (Cheung, Chan and Kajewski 2012) Ecological: The nation is wealthy in the normal assets and has enormous number of extraordinary verdure. In any case, the major natural difficulties incorporate sea dumping, a worldwide temperature alteration and protection of marine life (Chan et al. 2012). In view of the PESTLE examination of the nation, it very well may be proposed that the nation is confronting natural difficulties to a great extent. Broad employments of innovative headways are hampering the whole biological system of the nation. Additionally, the nation has a solid economy and stable economy. In this manner, the dispatch of LINXsmart cycling head protector is an incredible decision of item for the Australian market. Contender investigation The utilization of Porters five powers permitted the organization to investigate the rivals in the Australian market. Danger of new participants The potential dangers for the new items that are entering the market are the passage obstructions (E Dobbs 2014). The operational degree and the economy join to frame item separation, client steadfastness, structure of the expense and the exchanging cost. The protective cap producing industry is an enormous industry at the worldwide scale in this way, including high capital expense bringing about fixed significant expenses. The cap producing industry experiences high economy prompting effectivemanagement of the cost capital. This causes the organizations to deal with their monetary assets successfully and use it assets admirably (Yunna and Yisheng 2014). COROS point towards introducing savvy offices to the objective clients just as guaranteeing security. The imaginative and extraordinary highlights consolidated by the organization in the head protectors will support the item. The last factor is reliant on the organization and its administration methods, as the extension pace of the h ead protector producing industry is a lot of moderate. This is because of the numbness about the positive wellbeing and ecological effect of cycling that impacts the buying choice of protective caps among the Australian populace. Danger to substitute

Monday, July 27, 2020

Six Ways that SIPA OCS Can Help with Your Career COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Six Ways that SIPA OCS Can Help with Your Career COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog The Office of Career Services (OCS) provides students and alumni with tools to manage their professional development. OCS offers a variety of services to help current students and alumni find their career paths, such as individual career advising; required professional development courses; networking events, on-campus recruitment sessions, professional networking opportunities, and internship grants. Throughout the semester, OCS organizes numerous activities and services aimed at informing students about their options in internships and full time jobs. As a first year student, you will benefit from the professional panels where you can learn about possible employers and the procedure to apply to future positions. Some of the employers that have participated in these panels are: The Federal Reserve Bank of NY, the Central Intelligence Agency, Human Right Watch, Deloitte, Goldman Sachs, The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and Eurasia Group. As career development is a tenet of SIPA’s core curriculum, the OCS supports students’ career paths in the following ways: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT   The Professional Development class, which is administered through OCS, heightens the awareness and involvement of students in career planning.  This mandatory half-credit course develops the skills needed to compete effectively in the international and public affairs job markets.  Instructors provide direction on writing resumes and cover letters, job search tactics, successful interviewing, networking, negotiating employment offers, and other key career topics. INTERNSHIP REQUIREMENT Students are required to conduct an internship as part of their degree requirement, and this is also administered through OCS.   The internship is typically done in the summer between the first and second year, although it can be completed at any time during the program. INDIVIDUAL SERVICES On an individual level, OCS career advisers provide students and alumni with career advice, job search strategy tips, resume and cover letter reviews, and general career information.  OCS also maintains the SIPA Career Coaching (SIPACC) program, which is comprised of alumni working in a variety of jobs who provide industry specific information and advice.   Students can arrange appointments once they have registered for classes in August through SIPAlink, our recruitment software.  (See more  ) WEEKLY ONLINE NEWSLETTER To update students on programming and services, OCS compiles a weekly newsletter that lists information on career events, fellowship opportunities, upcoming recruitment visits, job/internship postings, and other essential information for their job search.   (See more  ) JOB DATABASE OCS offers a database of current positions, including internships, for both current students and alumni in a variety of professional fields. The database, which can be access through  SIPAlink, has proved to be quite useful to current students in helping them to find internships. If you are curious on what other things OCS does, visit our past  blog post  or go to the SIPA OCS website:  http://new.sipa.columbia.edu/careers/career-services. CAREER COACHING Finally, SIPA Career Coaching  (SIPACC) is offered free of charge by experts in the field.  SIPACCs are full-time professionals who volunteer throughout the year to offer industry-specific knowledge to current students.  Sessions run 30 minutes and Seeples can sign up for them in SIPAlink, SIPA’s job and internship database. Within the sessions, SIPA Career Coaches will: Dispense industry-specific job advice in their field(s). Share their knowledge about various career opportunities related to the advisee’s SIPA concentration or specialization. Establish steps that should be undertaken by the advisee in order to advance in a particular industry. Offer other career advice at their discretion. SIPA students and alumni can sign up for  three  coaching sessions per semester. SIPA’s Office of Career Services is another reason why SIPA may be the place for you. We hope to see you this coming year!

Friday, May 22, 2020

Christian Symbolism in the Old Man and the Sea - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 696 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/08/16 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: The Old Man and The Sea Essay Did you like this example? The Old Man and the Sea may seem like a shallow book on its face level, but many extensive themes are evident throughout the book. Specifically, Christian Symbolism is apparent throughout. These are the themes displayed in my artwork, which shows Santiago as a Christ-Like figure. This is because he persevered through pain and suffering, and turned it into reward and victory, just how Jesus went through pain on the cross, but renewed his life and won. These themes are initially evident in the book during his struggle with the fish. First, while the old man is fighting the marlin, his hands are cut by the fishing line. The cuts not only symbolize the wounds on Jesus hands while he was on the cross, but how he went through pain and suffering in his crucifixion. Santiago is a direct portrayal of Jesus and his suffering. The old man is willing to suffer and maybe even sacrifice his own life, just how Jesus was willing to do the same. Also during the fight, on page 107, Hemingway describes a noise Santiago has made, Just a noise such as a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his hands and into the woods (107). This is a direct association of Santiago and Jesus Christ. This quote relates to how Jesus hands were nailed to the cross, and a sound he might have made when nails were driven through his hands into the wood. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Christian Symbolism in the Old Man and the Sea" essay for you Create order Another example of Santiago being a Christ life figure is how he carried the mast of his ship up the hill and back home. This alludes to Jesus walk towards Calvary with the cross on his back. Also, towards the very end of the book, when Santiago lays down on his bed, Hemingway describes him laying down face down with his arms out and his palms/hands up. This evokes a picture of how Jesus Christ was suffering on the cross. He does this to even further link Santiago to Jesus. The whole story draws similarities between the two, where they both turn pain and loss into benefits and victory. Because of how often they relate, I chose to draw Santiago as Jesus to show this connection and how Hemmingway relies on this symbolism as a major overarching theme in the book. The parallels between the two drive how the old man is willing to sacrifice for the greater good, and the praise that comes from this sacrifice. He matches the two to relate to how Jesus sacrificed himself for the greater good of man. This connection also develops other, more face value, themes that Jesus and Santiago both show. Santiago being a Christ like figure plays into the theme of perseverance. You must go through some discomfort and a fight to yield rewards. Persevering and sticking through hardships results in rewards. Both Jesus and Santiago went through tough times but eventually their struggles bore fruits. In Santiagos case, the strenuous fight with the marlin shows this because he eventually killed the fish and ended his fishing drought. Also, the book shows how skill of mind is more important than brawn. Jesus didnt actually fight people with his hands in wars, he used his knowledge of God and stories to gain followers and baptize people. Santiago did the same where his knowledge and experience of the sea makes up for his weak self (being an old man). He may not have been able to finish the fish if he didnt have knowledge of the oceans and fishing. Santiago won by outsmarting the fish, rather than trying to forcibly and physically beat it. Both used their minds and knowledge more, rather than their physical strength to do their work. It again shows how the mind is more important than physical strength. Santiago is symbolized as a christ figure throughout the novel, both Jesus and Santiago were fixed to their faith in times of uncertainty and suffering. Santiago is meant to symbolize Christ, his teachings, and his struggles during his crucifixion. All of these reasons relate to the connection between Jesus and Santiago, and it is why Jesus was drawn in the art, to show this relationship.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Movie Review Get From The Car - 1041 Words

Get in the car. Emma hears her mom say to her as she s still waking up. Emma has no clue what s going on. She asks her mom, Where are we going? Her mom doesn t answer her. Emma is so confused she has no clue where they are going or why they are leaving. She had always had a pretty good life, she has plenty of friends, a boyfriend, she s was even the cheer captain. Emma is fifteen, she was born and raised in a little town called Norton, Kansas. They have been in the car for about three hours now and Emma is sound asleep. What are we going to tell her? asks Emma s mother. Nothing. Replies Emma s father. They show up in this little town outside of Minneapolis, called Eagan. Welcome to our new house! says Emma s father. The†¦show more content†¦Every family seems like they are all a little bit different. Emma thinks it is kind of weird but tries not to pay too much attention to it. One of the families in the cul-de-sac homeschools all the girls who live around them. Emma parents have decided that that’s where they want Emma to go to school. She has been trying to make friends with all the girls in the houses around her but they all seem so different. The family who lives next to Emma seems very nice but Emma has never heard any of them talk. Emma believes that her parents are hiding something from her. She doesn’t know much about their past and they still haven t told her why they moved. She doesn t like going to school since she doesn t have any friends and her teacher is very strict. Emma s parents told her they work as accountants but she just found out that was a lie. Emma found a paper in her mother s brief case with all the lies her parents have told her and how to cover them up. Emma decided to skip school one day and follow her parents to see where they go. She sees her parents getting ready to get into their car so she hides in the back seat. Emma can t tell where they are going but she doesn t remember ever being in this part of tow n. Her parents stop the car and get out Emma is scared she doesn’t know what to do or how to follow someone. She gets out of the car and stays a couple of feet behind her parents. They go into this mysterious building, it

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Earhquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia Free Essays

string(102) " caution is advised for coastal residents in Northern Sumatra and in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands\." On December 26, 2004, mass destruction and devastation was the result of a large earthquake off of the West Coast of Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The earthquake began in the early morning on Sunday at 7:58:53 AM, and wreaked havoc on thousands in the affected areas. BBC News reported on the earthquake, stating that â€Å"Sunday’s tremor – the fourth largest since 1990 – had a particularly widespread effect because it seems to have taken place just below the surface of the ocean, analysts say† (BBC News). We will write a custom essay sample on Earhquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia or any similar topic only for you Order Now The earthquake had significant effect on the region and the people living in these regions. Not only was the earthquake damaging and devastating, but the quake was also the cause of a correlated tsunami that caused even more damage and destruction to the area. â€Å"This earthquake is the largest event in the world in 40 years, and produced the most devastating tsunami recorded in history† (Lay). â€Å"Coastal communities across South Asia – and more than 4,000 km away in Africa – were swept away and homes engulfed by waves up to 10 m high after the quake created a tsunami that sped across the ocean† (BBC News). The geographic location of the Earthquake in absolute location is 3. 316? North, 95. 854? East; and the relative location of the quake was off the West Coast of Northern Sumatra, which was 155 miles South Southeast of Banda Aceh, Sumatra Indonesia, and 185 miles West of Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia (USGS). The earthquake that shook the West of Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, as well as many other neighboring countries, was of a great 9. 0 magnitude on the Richter scale. â€Å"At the source of the earthquake, the interface between the India plate and the Burma plate dips about 10 degrees to the east-northeast. The subducting plate dips more steeply at greater depths†(USGS). The quake occurred when the Earth’s crust, a 1,200 km segment of the crust, shifted beneath the Indian Ocean, as far as 10 to 20 meters below (Marshall). As the crust shifted and the quake went into motion, a substantial amount of energy was released. Energy released by this overwhelming earthquake was an â€Å"estimated 20X10^17 Joules, or 475,000 kilotons (475 megatons) of TNT, or the equivalent of 23,000 Nagasaki bombs† (Marshall). All of this stored elastic energy that was released by the earthquake, in turn initiated the† uplift of the seafloor and the displacement of billions of gallons of seawater† (Marshall). These events lead to a massive tsunami. â€Å"Over a period of 10 hours, the tsunami triggered by the quake struck the coasts of over 12 countries† (Marshall). â€Å"The region where the great earthquake occurred on 26 December 2004, marks the seismic boundary formed by the movement of the Indo-Australian plate as it collides with the Burma subplate, which is part of the Eurasian plate† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"For millions of years the India tectonic plate has drifted and moved in a north/northeast direction, colliding with the Eurasian tectonic plate and forming the Himalayan Mountains. As a result of such migration and collision with both the Eurasian and the Australian tectonic plates, the Indian plate’s eastern boundary is a diffuse zone of seismicity and deformation, characterized by the extensive faulting and numerous large earthquakes† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"Previous major earthquakes have occurred further north, in the Andaman Sea and further South along the Sumatra, Java and Sunda section of one of the earth’s greatest fault zones, a subduction zone known as the Sunda Trench. Slippage and plate subduction make this region highly seismic† (Pararas-Carayannis). In addition to the Sunda Trench, the Sumatra Fault is responsible for seismic activity on the Island of Sumatra. This is a strike-slip type of fault which extends along the entire length of the island† (Pararas-Carayannis). East of northwest Sumatra, â€Å"a divergent plate boundary separates the Burma plate from the Sunda plate† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"More specifically, in the region off the west coast of northern Sumatra, the India plate is moving in a northeastward direction at about 5 to 5. 5 cm per year relative to the Burma plate† (Pararas-Carayannis). The region where the earthquake occurred –and particularly the Andaman Sea- is a very active seismic area. Also Sumatra is in the center of one of the world’s most seismically active regions. Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 8 struck Sumatra in 1797, 1833, and 1861† (Pararas-Carayannis). It is obvious that Indonesia is an area that is highly susceptible to earthquakes, because of the shifts and movements of the tectonic plates that Indonesia lies on. â€Å"Indonesia is surrounded by four major tectonic plates, the Pacific, the Eurasian, the Australian, and the Philippine plates. All these major tectonic plates and their subplates are presently active. Major earthquakes and tsunamis can be expected in the semi-enclosed seas and along the Indian Ocean side of Indonesia. Major earthquakes in the semi-enclosed seas can generate destructive local tsunamis in the Sulu, Banda, and Java Seas. Major earthquakes along the Sunda Trench can generate tsunamis that can be destructive not only in Indonesia but to other countries bordering the Indian Ocean† (Pararas-Carayannis). The major tectonic feature in the region is the Sunda Arc that extends approximately 5,600 km between the Andaman Islands in the northwest and the Banda Arc in the east. The Sunda Arc consists of three primary segments; the Sumatra segment, the Sunda Strait Segment and the Java Segment. These locations represent the area of greatest seismic exposure†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"In the immediate vicinity off Northern Sumatra, most of the stress and energy that had accumulated were released by the crustal movement that caused the 26 December 2004 earthquake. The subduction of the India tectonic plate underneath the Burma plate cause upward thrusting of an extensive block and generated the destructive tsunami† (Pararas-Carayannis). As the Burma plate â€Å"snapped upward, it was a huge geologic event. The dislocation of the boundary between the Indian and Burma plates took place over a length of 745 miles and within three days had set off 69 aftershocks† (Elliot). â€Å"The aftersocks represent nature’s way of restoring stability and temporary equilibrium. It is unlikely that a destructive tsunami will occur again soon in the same region, however caution is advised for coastal residents in Northern Sumatra and in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands. You read "Earhquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia" in category "Essay examples" If an afterschock is strong enough and it is strongly felt, evacuation to higher elevation is advised. In fact, strong shaking of the ground is nature’s warning that a tsunami may be imminent† (Pararas-Carayannis). The natural disasters also create natural warning signs that more damage may be upcoming. The aftershocks suggest that the earthquake rupture had a maximum length of 1200—1300 km parallel to the Sunda trench and a width of over 100 km perpendicular to the earthquake source† (USGS). Many things can be taken into account, analyzed, and hopefully used in the future to reduce the number of casualties and losses as a result of an earthquake of such magnitude. The importance of this earthquake and its effects on the communities devastated by this earthquake are many. â€Å"According to the latest official reports (Ministry of Health) 166,320 people were killed, 127,774 are still missing and 655,000 people were displaced in Northern Sumatra. A total of 110 bridges were destroyed, 5 seaports and 2 airports sustained considerable damage, and 82% of all roads were severely damaged. The death toll is expected to rise† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"There were many lessons already learned from this tragic event in Southeast Asia. Many more lessons will be learned in the near future as this tragedy unfolds and reveals the many failures to value and protect human life in this neglected region of the world. Indeed a bitter lesson was already learned that great earthquakes and destructive tsunamis do occur in this region† (Pararas-Carayannis). The communities of people living in this region that is highly susceptible to earthquakes and tsunamis could learn important information about the somewhat safer areas to reside, or safety techniques to carry out and be aware of while in the midst of a natural disaster. â€Å"The magnitude of the tsunami disaster could have been mitigated with a proper disaster preparedness plan and a functioning early warning system† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"However the strong shaking by the earthquake should have been nature’s warning for local residents that a tsunami was imminent and they could have run to higher ground to save their lives. A simple program of public education and awareness of the potential hazard could have saved many lives in the immediate area† (Pararas-Carayannis). It would be imagined after having at least four earthquakes of 9. 0 magnitude or greater in the region, that residents, public officials, and even tourists could easily find or allowed , much less given, information needed to promote awareness for the possible catastrophes and preventive methods for any type of damage that can be sustained and anticipated. For the more distant coastlines of India, Shri-Lanka, and other locations in the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean, there was ample time to issue a warning –if only an early warning system existed for this region of the world and if there was a way of communicating the information to the coastal residents of threatened areas. No such warning system exists at the present time –the lack of disaster awareness or preparedness is appalling. A simple educational program on hazard awareness could have prevented the extensive losses of lives –particularly of children. One third of those that perished were children† (Pararas-Carayannis). The severity of damages resulting from the earthquake and subsequent tsunami is devastating, and what makes this natural disaster even more tragic is to know that some preventive measures could have been taken. There are adequate instruments and warning systems that have been developed and are currently being used currently in other locations around the world where devices sufficiently predict and send signal out for the warning of tsunamis. It is often because of insufficient funds or simple neglect for an organized plan of action to take in cases of emergencies as such. â€Å"India and Shri-Lanka are not members of the International Warning System in the Pacific and they have not shown interest in joining any regional early warning systems. An erroneous belief has persisted that tsunamis do not occur frequently enough to warrantee participation into a regional tsunami warning system. Local government authorities in the region did not even have a plan for disseminating warning information to threatened coastlines –even if a warning had been provided. There was not even a basic educational plan for disaster preparedness. It should be obvious that such a program is necessary to prevent similar tragedies in the future† (Pararas-Carayannis). â€Å"In Sri-Lanka alone, more than one million people are displaced and aid workers are under pressure to ensure they have clean water and sanitation to prevent an outbreak of disease† (BBC News). This earthquake is significantly important to the people affected in the surrounding communities, as well as the geologic setting of this disaster. â€Å"Five main reasons why this disaster was so deadly: 1) High population density on low-lying coastal areas of the Indian Ocean, 2) Short distance from tsunami source to populated low lying coasts, leaving little time for warning, 3) No tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean, 4)Poor and developing countries with vulnerable infrastructure and minimal disaster preparedness, 5) Little public awareness of tsunami hazard† (Marshall). It is impossible to be able to prevent natural disasters from occurring, but there are some measures that can be taken to help prevent the cause of some injuries and deaths. The measures that can be taken to prevent more harm than already caused may seem insignificant in the grand scheme of the disaster, yet the smallest preventive measures and knowledge to be aware of certain signals to promote safety awareness, such as knowing when to move to higher ground after initial shaking or some basic understanding of simple, but possibly life-saving medical treatments. It is apparent that Indonesia and surrounding countries are vulnerable to earthquakes with possible tsunamis that may cause mass destruction. Residents in Indonesia and surrounding countries should be informed and aware of the potential disaster zones they live in, in efforts to take some sort of preventive procedures such as building more secure homes on more stable location, to keep medical aid kits stocked and easily accessible, and emergency plans of action if disaster strikes and a family is separated for example. The damage resulting from the 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia Earthquake was remarkably widespread, causing extensive devastation to the land, buildings, and communities including hundreds of thousands deaths and injuries across thousands of kilometers It is also obvious that Indonesia and majority of the adjacent countries need to significantly work to create a disaster plan, educational programs to make people knowledgeable about nature’s hazards, and to adapt a system to detect and transmit information and messages for early warning signs. The great amount of destruction and loss of human life due to these kinds of natural hazards cannot be prevented, but the amount of devastation suffered would be substantially less if these precautions were taken advantage of and actually put into effect. How to cite Earhquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Sex Linked Diseases free essay sample

Acid Maltase Deficiency: It is an autosomal recessive disorder, in which the defect is in the gene for the acid maltase enzyme, which leads to accumulation of glycogen stored in muscles. Glycogen build up, weakens the muscles of a patient suffering from this disorder. This may affect respiratory muscles resulting in respiratory failure. It is also known as the  Pompe Disease. Although, in childhood and adolescence the symptoms show slow progress and are less severe, infantile forms cause death within first year, if not treated on time. Albinism: Albinism is a congenital disorder in which there is little or completely no production of melanin in hair, skin and iris of the eyes. Hence albinos (people suffering from albinism) have light colored skin, hair and eyes. It is caused due to inheritance of recessive alleles from parents. This disorder cant be cured. However, the symptoms can be alleviated with the help of surgical treatment, vision aids and using device that provide protection from sun. We will write a custom essay sample on Sex Linked Diseases or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Alzheimers Disease: Alzheimers disease is the most common form of dementia which is characterized by gradual memory loss, irritability, mood swings, confusion and language breakdown. Although, scientists are not unequivocal about the cause of this disease, the most widely accepted reason is the amyloid cascade hypothesis, that suggests excess production of a small protein fragment called ABeta (A? ). Also known as Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT) or simply Alzheimers, this is a degenerative disease and scientists are yet to find its cure. However, balanced diet, mental exercises and stimulation are often suggested for prevention and managing of the disease. Angelman syndrome: It is a neurological disorder that was first described by a British pediatrician, Dr. Harry Angelman, in 1965. This disorder is marked by intellectual and developmental delays, severe speech impairment and problems in movement and balance, recurrent seizures and small heads. Children with Angelman syndrome typically have a happy demeanor. They are hyperactive with short attention span and show jerky hand movements. These children appear normal at birth. This genetic disorder in human is a classical case of genetic imprinting, in which the disorder is caused due to deletion or activation of the maternally inherited chromosome 15. Its sister syndrome is the Prader-Willi syndrome in which there is a similar loss or inactivation of the paternally inherited chromosome 15. Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: It is a pleiotropic recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by obesity, polydactyly, deterioration of rod and cone cells, mental retardation and defect in the gonads and kidney disease. It is difficult to diagnose Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, specially in the young. As no cure is yet known for the disorder, treatment is concentrated on specific organs and systems. Barth Syndrome: A rare but serious sex linked genetic disorder, the Barth syndrome is caused due to mutations or alterations in the BTHS gene. The gene is located on the long arm of X chromosome. This disorder primarily affects the heart. Besides heart defects, Barth syndrome results in poor skeletal musculature, short stature, mitochondrial abnormalities and deficiency of white blood cells. There is no cure for this disorder. Treatment focuses on managing the symptoms and preventing infections. Bipolar Disorder: Also known as manic depressive disorder or bipolar affective disorder, individuals suffering from bipolar disorder suffer from highly elevated moods, referred to as mania or episodes of severe depression. Research shows that both genetic as well as environmental factors are responsible for this disorder. Medicines as well as psychotherapy is found to be useful in dealing with the severe mood swings associated with the disorder. Jackson-Weiss Syndrome: It is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder in which there are foot abnormalities, and premature fusion of bones in the skull lead to deformations of the facial features (widely spaced eyes, bulging forehead) and the skull. In this syndrome, the great toes are short and wide and turn away from the rest of the toes. Some toes may be fused or have some other abnormalities. The mutation is caused in the FGFR2 gene which is located in chromosome 10. Treatment involves corrective surgery for deformed bones in face and foot. Klinefelter Syndrome: It is the most common sex linked genetic disorder. In which males have an extra X chromosome. Hence ,this disorder is also known as  47, XXY  or  XXY syndrome. The most common symptom is infertility. Besides this, males with the XXY syndrome have impaired physical, language and social developments. As these individuals produce less testosterone than other males, such teenagers may be less muscular and have less facial hair than their peers. The presence of the extra X chromosome cant be undone.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Selling Essays

Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Selling Essays Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Selling Paper Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Selling Paper Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Selling: Perspectives of Both Tourism Operators and Tourists The growth of the internet has made direct selling easier and faster for both tour operators and tourists. According to Frost (2004) the fascination with new technology has changed the way tourism providers interact and trade with their customers. The primary focus for this essay is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of direct selling for travel and tour management. In this essay, the perspectives of both tourism operators and tourists will be considered. This essay will be presented in four sections. The first section will outline direct selling and identify the users of direct selling. The second section will discuss the advantages and disadvantages for a tourist using direct selling. The third section will discuss the advantages and disadvantages for a tourism provider using direct selling. Finally, the essay will be concluded summarising the key advantages and disadvantages for direct selling. In the past, travel agents have been an intermediary for tourists and tourism sellers. Travel agents have been used by tourists to access a wide range of tourism service providers; likewise tourism providers have used travel agents to gain access to numerous customers (Frost, 2004). Due to the extreme competition in the tourism industry, tourism providers are looking to cut costs in order to win over customers with lower prices. This is currently being done by cutting down on the commission costs payed to intermediary such as travel agents and introducing direct selling. In recent years the rapid growth and vast accessibility of the internet has allowed the transition to direct selling to take over. The internet creates availability and accessibility for tourists and tourism providers to do business while providing equivalent information at a lower cost than a travel agent can (Bennett Lai, 2005). Moreover, Frost (2004) identifies four methods of direct selling other than the internet where tourism businesses are able to get in contact and do business with tourists, these include: use of the telephone, increased use of credit cards, the development of call centres and the development of customer loyalty programs. Each of these function have the ability to facilitate direct selling and put the tourism seller directly in touch with the purchaser. However, for many tourism businesses, airlines in particular, the internet has become the primary method for direct selling (Law Leung, 000, as cited in Frost, 2004) Tourism businesses are generally able to easily create their own websites on the internet to attract, interact and make transactions with potential tourists without using an agent. According to Bennett and Lai (2005) the internet has given tourism providers such as hotels the opportunity to cut out intermediaries by providing facilities for direct booking via their websites. Hotels and airlines are service providers who make notable use of direct selling over the internet. According to Howard and Harris (2001) travel products are one of the most popular products and services available on the internet as they do not require the customer to feel, smell, try on or test before purchasing and the product does not need to be sent to the buyer. Many tourism businesses provide the opportunity to purchase tourism products or services directly via their websites. A study by Dolnicar and Laesser (2007) revealed that 64. 4% Swiss tourists purchase tickets for scheduled flights departing from local airports directly from suppliers in comparison to 35. % who purchase from travel agents, similarly only 33. 2% of Swiss tourists purchase tickets for ships and cruises from travel agents. This data shows that many tourists are moving away from the traditional use of travel agents and further towards direct purchasing. Webber and Wesley (1999) found that the types of tourists most likely to be using the internet to purchase directly form tourism sellers are usually between the ages of 26 and 55, have high incomes, are employed in management, professional or computer related positions and have more experience on the internet. However it is important to note here that this research was conducted in 1999 and results today may differ. A tourist will experience advantages when purchasing tourism products and services directly from the seller. The most apparent advantage that a tourist encounters is lower cost. As the seller is not required pay commissions to an intermediary, products and services become cheaper and the tourist will benefit from the lower cost. The availability of cheaper tourism products is a certain advantages for tourists. As the purchase is often a high involvement purchase, tourists tend to shop around for the best available offers. The introduction of direct selling has forced prices in the tourism industry down therefore creating more competition for sellers but better prices for buyers. Direct selling has also allowed the industry of low cost airlines to evolve and create greater savings and advantages for tourist. Dolnicar and Laesser (2007) found that direct selling over the internet also allows tourists to communicate with suppliers regarding information about the product or service and allows them to make transactions at any time and any place. For many tourists the convenience of direct selling online is a key advantage. The ability to purchase at all hours of the day and night and from any where in the world is one of the significant attractions to online direct selling. Many tourists work long hours and are not able to get to a travel agent during open hours; this feature of convenience is a huge incentive to book directly with supplier. There are also disadvantages tourists experience when using the internet to purchase directly from sellers. According to Frost (2004) the internet is considered by some to be: impersonal, inflexible, frustrating, not always convenient, not always available and risky. Frost (2004) explains that many people would prefer to talk to a real person when planning travel rather than a computer screen, as people value the reassurance of personal advice. Many tourists appreciate the independence of an intermediary who does not work for the supplier and will give true, unbiased advice. Intermediaries such as travel agents are able to make tourists feel comfortable when purchasing tourism products as they are able to offer lots of different options from many suppliers. Frost (2004) also identifies that for some people the internet can be difficult to use as some websites do not allow certain people to access it and may lack the information required to complete bookings. Some websites of tourism suppliers are confusing to use as they may use technical language and have too much information. People who do not use the internet as frequently as others often have difficulties with making bookings online. Therefore, tourists often prefer to use a travel agent or intermediaries as they are able to perform all of the difficult and time consuming tasks that the tourist can not. According to Frost (2004) some tourists acting as their own travel agent risk losing the accuracy, knowledge and speed that an agent offers. Travel agents are specially trained in understanding the industry and are available for tourists to use to gain information from. The final disadvantage experienced by tourists to be discussed is the risk of fraud. According to Frost (2001) many tourists have concerns when purchasing online and giving out personal information such as credit card details. It is a well known fact that some people do experience fraudulent behaviour when spending money online. This can be a high risk that a tourist takes when purchasing from an unknown supplier. This disadvantage of purchasing directly from a supplier may prevent some tourists from utilising this facility and choosing to use a trusted agent. When tourism suppliers sell directly to the tourist, the seller will also experience advantages and disadvantages. The foremost advantage experienced by a supplier selling to a tourist involves lower costs. These lower costs are often experienced due to the reduction in costs of commissions and distribution costs. Dolnicar and Laesser (2007) complement these advantages by including higher revenues and a larger potential market to the advantages of a supplier selling via a webpage or directly to the tourist. Bennett and Lai (2005) found that suppliers reduce costs by cutting out the ‘middleman’ or intermediaries such as travel agents. As previously discussed, travel agents and intermediaries work based on the commission paid to them by the seller for selling to tourists on their behalf. By cutting out the intermediary and selling directly to the tourist, large savings can be made by the tourism supplier. These cost reduction will not only increase revenues, but allow the tourism supplier to be more competitive within the industry. Further advantages of supplying online include the little to no capital investment required and the effectiveness of promotion and distribution through video clips, virtual tours and images (Bennett and Lai, 2005). Websites make communicating with tourists cost and time effective with online contact facilities such as online bookings email responses. Sellers are also able to provide all required information on the web page including frequently asked questions so that the buyer does not have to contact the supplier. The use of images and videos provide more depth to what the tourist is purchasing and allows the tourist to interpret the information. According to Bennett and Lai (2005) some suppliers, airlines in particular, benefit from direct selling as the internet reduces the cost of producing tickets. As tickets booked online are all created electronically, the supplier saves in the costs of printing the ticket and distributing the ticket. Further research has found that suppliers are choosing to improve their service by creating customer loyalty programs that allows the business to keep record of past users (Bennett Lai, 2005). These customer loyalty programs not only benefit tourist, but they allow the supplier to keep a close eye on where and when the customer is travelling. Once the tourism busiesses knows who the customer is they are able to target them with promotions for future travel. This shows that if the seller was not directly in touch with the tourist, their customer knowledge would be limited and future promotion would be more difficult. Common customer loyalty programs in the tourism industry include frequent flyer programs and hotel rewards clubs. These loyalty programs usually reward customers for repeat business with discounts, perks and upgrades therefore encourages the customer to continue to use the business. The disadvantages of suppliers selling directly to tourists have also been considered. These disadvantages include the costs of maintaining websites and support facilities whilst trying to keep the tourism business running. Many tourism busiesses, particularly smaller businesses find it easier to leave the sales and customer service duties to experienced agents so that they are free to do what they do best. Although most large tourism organisations such as airlines have developed departments especially for direct selling, smaller businesses such as tour operators may not have the capacity or facilities to conduct direct business with tourists. Dolnicar and Laesser (2007) found that the costs in maintaining websites, the use of information technology support and the usage of internet channels often becomes costly to some tourism businesses. It is important for the tourism supplier to ensure that websites are constantly up dated and all applications and purchasing functions are working properly and easy for the tourist to use. In addition, the tourism supplier must ensure that the business is advertised in the best possible media outlet to guarantee high customer coverage. In conclusion, this essay has revealed that the growth of the internet is allowing communication between tourists and tourism sellers to be much easier and widely available. Key advantages for tourist purchasing tourism products through directly include lower purchasing costs and the convenience of purchasing from any where at any time. However the disadvantages of purchasing directly include the lack of personalisation and trust, the inconvenience of time wastage and the risk of fraud. Key advantages of tourism businesses selling directly to busiesses involve the reduction of costs paid to intermediaries and an increase in customer loyalty. However disadvantages to tourism businesses include higher competition and the costs of maintaining websites. This essay has shown that although direct selling and the internet and is steering customers away from the use of intermediaries such as travel agents, there are still many advantages and disadvantages to both suppliers and tourists when doing business together. References: Bennett, M. M. Lai. C. K. (2005). The impact of the internet on travel agencies in Taiwan. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 6(1), 8-23. Frost, W. (2004). Travel and tour management, Melbourne: Hospitality Press. Howard, J. Harris, R. (2001). The Australian travel agency (3rd Ed. ). Roseville, N. S. W: McGraw-Hill Book Company Australia. Dolnicar, S. Laesser, C. (2007). Travel agency marketing strategy: insights from Switzerland. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 133-146. DOI:10. 1177/0047287507299573 Webber, K. Wesley, R. (1999). Profiling people searching for and purchasing travel products on the World Wide Web. Journal of Travel Research, 37, 291-298.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020


DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY As we all know that an essay is a form of short piece of writing that is created to share authors point of view. An essay is a pedagogical tool used to teach and to improve students writing skills. One of the most common and widely-used essays is descriptive essay. Descriptive essay can be categorized as the type of academic writing that majorly focused on picking up of sensory sort of details. Â  Sensory details mean an authors perception like getting and understanding the sensory information. Sensory information is obtained through physiological capabilities of the body and processed through mind perception. By describing your own sensory perception in the descriptive essay, you are appealing to the readers. You major goal is to draw in the reader’s attention through his emotional, physical and intellectual involvement. While writing your descriptive essay, consider your audience, focus on getting the strong impression, use variety of linguistic descriptive tools to receive audience reaction. DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY Writing descriptive essay is an academic skill that requires some practice. The major knowledge about descriptive essay is actual knowing exactly what this type of writing requires. Initially, descriptive type of essay implies the excessive use of description methods. Prepare your mind to give the reader a full picture of the events that took place. Think of yourself as a reporter that is here to provide detailed descriptions of all things that happened at the specific time. By giving a full picture that may include momentary face expressions of participants or eminent gestures, the reader will be able to create a picture in his mind that is proven to fit the reality of description by 99%. To open up a secret to you, while many people agree that the information is perceived by the mind, but the actual information processing oftentimes is being conducted with the help of our subconscious mind as well. That is the reason that stands behind a good descriptive essay that is able to show all events in a format of descriptive writing to all readers in the same manner.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Reflection 7 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Reflection 7 - Essay Example The writer says that some foodies are prone to be outraged to the mention of raising pigs inhumanly. Ironically and remarkably, they tend to show little or no interest to inhumane working conditions their employees work in as they prepare the pork. Employees are entitled to safe working environment, better wages, no discriminations and a free working zone. Unfortunately, some companies are mindful of their returns solely. Workers thus suffer a lot. I also gathered a vast knowledge of the existence of trade unions and their roles To ensure that worker’s rights are respected; there have been the establishments of various labor unions (Kohn). These organizations advocate for better wages of workers in foodies. They also inspect the working conditions of the employees to ensure that they are safe. For instance, Whole Food has for a long time been subjected to severe scrutiny after being accused of labor abuses and also union busting. According to Kohn, the Coalition of Immokalee was able to bargain for a pay increase of its workers by 75% by the year 2005. Employees deserve better rights in their place of work. It is only wise for foodies to help them in fighting for their rights. It is inevitable that in the case of consumers eating low-quality food; they will outburst with complaints. They must help the workers in this fight. The unions must also aid in this

Sunday, February 2, 2020

BIM (BUILDING Information Modeling ) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

BIM (BUILDING Information Modeling ) - Essay Example The two kinds of BIM software are authoring software and coordination software (Solibri, n.p). BIM process involves building design that require collaboration through computer models and not disjoints drawing sets. Through the use of BIM, digital representations of buildings are made available and used for decision making, first class production of construction documents, building planning, and predictions of performance and cost estimates (Solibri, n.p). BIM is employed in modeling and not drawing (Solibri, n.p). Modeling permits the designers to see the building and its parts from numerous angles. In addition, clash detection in the design phase allows designers to identify faults and correct them prior to commencement the building (McNell, 9). Early errors detection implies that costs involved in on-site correction are eliminated. Coordination is emphasized and facilitated by BIM through the use of a data repository where team members easily access information to confirm questiona ble aspects like building elements’ compatibility with the rest of the building. Through BIM cloud, BIM models by different team members can easily be viewed and edited and the consequences of each action made accessible to all model users (McNell 9). BIM is used to provide precise inclusion and modeling of prices and upgrading of bids and project pricing accuracy. Through the visualization designs, clients can verify design intention and sharedknowledge through virtual design and construction then strengthens client’s satisfaction. 2.0. BIM management Although BIM reinforces construction team members’ collaboration through the use of a shared information database to create a virtual model, there is heated debate over the management of BIM (AUGI, n.p). The ownership of BIM is left to DDC or the department of Design and construction. The model ownership is extended to include all inventions, designs, ideas, and methods contained inside the model. DDC reveals that peripheral users like contractors and consultants are only granted short lived use of BIM which terminates with the completion of the project and all copies of BIM copies have to be returned to DDC (AUGI, n.p). Basically, the project models contained in BIM from pre-conception to completion belong to DDC while project team owns just the idea. BIM teams include architects, designers, engineers and contractors and owners. The owner submits his or her request for service to the architect (AUGI, n.p). The architect then validates the request before designing the building. The architect provides the engineer with the building model and the engineer then uses computer aided design 3D visualization and modeling through Revit and creates 3D design or imports ordinary 2D drawings that have 3D information to establish perfect renderings from 3D (McNell, 15). Using BIM, designers investigate substitute notions; carry out value engineering and come up with finest designs. The contractors then revise the documented construction before commencement of physical construction. From the model, project owners are then involved in project aspects since they gain immediate and vast information which is formatted to satisfy their needs. 3.0. BIM practice BIM process involves four main stages which are design, build, operation and maintenance. The BIM model life cycle begins with the request from the owners. At first, the owners do not have sufficient information on what the final product will have (Eastman, Teicholz, Sacks and Liston,

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Effects of GABA on Anxiety Disorder

Effects of GABA on Anxiety Disorder Keywords: Anxiety, Moringa pudding, HIV/AIDS, GABA.   Indonesias first case of HIV was reported in 1987 and between then and 2009, 3,492 people died from the disease (Fred, 2012). Of the 11,856 cases reported in 2008, 6,962 of them were people under 30 years of age, including 55 infants under 1 year old (Seligson and Peterson, 2010). There are a high number of concentrated cases among Indonesias most at risk including injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers their partners and clients, homosexual men and infants who contract the disease through the womb or from being breast fed (Chris, 2012). In the last 15 years, HIV/AIDS has become an epidemic in Indonesia. The highest concentration areas are Papua, Jakarta, East Java, West Java, Bali and Riau and all are considered to be zones that need immediate attention. Due to the increasing number of IDUs, the number of new infections has grown rapidly since 1999. Moreover, a generalised epidemic is already under way in the provinces of Papua and West Papua, where a population based survey found an adult-prevalence rate of 2.4% in 2006 (Broman, 2009). A whopping 48% of Papuans are unaware of HIV/AIDS, and the number of AIDS cases per 100,000 people in the two provinces is almost 20 times the national average. The percentage of people who reported being unaware of HIV/AIDS increases to 74% among uneducated populations in the region (Braet et al., 2007). (The epidemic in Indonesia is one of the fastest growing among HIV/AIDS in Asia. The epidemic of injecting drug use continues to be the primary mode of transmission, accounting for 59% of HIV infections, and heterosexual transmission accounted for 41% in 2006. According to the Indonesian Ministry of Health, recent surveys report that more than 40% of IDUs in Jakarta have tested positive for HIV, and about 13% tested positive in West Java. Many IDUs sell sex to finance their drug habits. Yet in 2005, 25% of IDUs in Bandung, Jakarta, and Medan said they had unprotected paid sex in the last 12 months (Baxter, 2010). The Indonesian archipelago stretches more than 3,000 miles along the Equator. Cultural practices and levels of urbanization have an impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (Fredrickson et al., 2008). For instance, a culture of paid and transactional sex among young men and women aged 15 to 24 has been a driving factor in Papua. Among 15 to 24 year olds, HIV-prevalence rates were 3% in 2006, according to the Ministry of Health (Hunter and . Prevalence rates among sex workers in East Javas major urban areas ranged from 9% in Surabaya to 16% in Malang and Probolinggo in 2004 (Haruddin, 2012). Numerous factors put Indonesia in danger of a broader epidemic. Risky sexual behaviors are common. Only 54.7% of sex workers and 56.5% of men who have sex with men (MSM) use condoms consistently, and just 18.5 percent of IDUs consistently use both sterile needles and condoms, according to Indonesias 2006 report to the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS). Many IDUs are also sex workers or clients of sex workers, increasing the likelihood of HIV/AIDS spreading to the general population. Awareness of HIV status among at-risk populations is low. According to a 2004-2005 study cited in the UNGASS report, 18.1% of IDUs, 15.4% of MSM, 14.8% of sex workers, and 3.3% of clients of sex workers had received HIV testing in the previous 12 months and knew their test results (Hoshi et al., 2007). Stigma and discrimination persist and many people living with HIV hide their status for fear of losing their jobs, social status, and the support of their families and communities, thus decreasing the likelihood that they will receive proper treatment and increasing the chances of HIV spreading undetected. Feelings of anxiety are a normal, healthy response to the diagnosis, onset, or progression of HIV infection (Daniel et al., 2009). But its important to recognize the difference between this type of anxiety and the sort that signals a clinical disorder. HIV itself does not cause anxiety disorders, but HIV+ people tend to experience more anxiety than the general population. Certain medications used to treat HIV can also cause anxiety symptoms. Fortunately, anxiety disorders are among the most treatable of psychiatric conditions, and respond well to pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment (Phillipe and Cella, 2009). Among HIV/AIDS-infected patients receiving medical care, 20.3% have been found to have an anxiety disorder, with 12.3% meeting the criteria for panic disorder, 10.4% for PTSD, and 2.8% having generalized anxiety disorder (Nevid, 2012). People living with HIV can experience symptoms of anxiety across the spectrum of anxiety disorders. Adjustment disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder that manifests as anxiety, and is common after receiving an HIV diagnosis (Gropen et al., 2011). The other major types of anxiety disorder are panic disorder and agoraphobia, social phobia and other phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), acute stress disorder and anxiety disorder due to a general medical condition (McDowell and Newell, 1999). HIV+ people experience some anxiety disorders, such as OCD, no more frequently than those who do not have the virus (Post and White, 2004). But the experience of having HIV can prompt or exacerbate other disorders, such as PTSD, especially when someone has an underlying risk for them. Anxiety can present in a variety of ways, including shortness of breath, chest pain, racing heart, dizziness, numbness or tingling, nausea or the sensation of choking. When there are no underlying medical explanations for these symptoms, clinicians are advised to consider an anxiety disorder as the cause (Ruggert and Warner, 2001). Anxiety disorders can seem to flare up at key moments in the experience of HIV disease, such as at the time of initial HIV diagnosis, diagnosis with an opportunistic infection, a declining CD4 count or a blip in viral load, or any other reminder of ongoing HIV infection. Its helpful to recognize that these experiences may trigger anxiety, even symptoms of panic disorder and depression, for an HIV+ person. Besides the discomfort of anxiety disorders, they can interfere in an HIV+ persons overall success in managing HIV because they are a major cause of nonadherence to medication (Post and White, 2004). There is a main question What are appropriate treatments for an HIV+ person suffering from an anxiety disorder. Anxiety is portrayed as a frame of mind concerned about future in association with preparation for possible, upcoming undesirable happenings. The present treatment for the disorder is having a lot of side-effects. An agent with good therapeutic effect and less side-effects is needed for the treatment of anxiety. State Hospital of Waluyo Jati has found an innovation through Nutri Moringa Pudding on decreasing of anxiety level in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. To investigate the Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) extract of Moringa oleifera Pudding in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. It showed by statistic result by paired sample t-test (SPSS) t. 0.0008, it means P The research subject is determined by the purposive sampling and it was conducted on HIV/AIDS patient. A pretest with the anxieties scale (Nevid, 2012) followed by first group (n=50), then selected a sample that has the highest anxiety score (n=30) and they will be the subjects and treated by Nutri Moringa Pudding for a week. Post-test be held a week after treated. Fixed schedule of moringa pudding consumption be done 3 times a day.       nonR 01 à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚  (x) à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚  02 The Anxiety Scale by Nevid input form consists of 30 vignette like questions designed to rate 3 aspects such as emotional, cognitive, and physiologic of subjects in terms of severity and role in the core character. The questions are clustered in matrix format across three core character types, namely Types A, B, and C. By referencing the strength of scores related to their type domain characteristics, the likely triggers and expressions of maladaptive behavior is identified, which can be applied to a variety of settings and objectives. The matrix structure and associated characteristics are illustrated in Diagram 1 below. Tabel-1. Anxiety Scale Item Scale Favorable Unfavorable DISCUSSION There Anxiety disorders are a serious concern for HIV+ people who dont have good coping strategies and a strong social support network, such as family, friends, or a faith community. Individuals with a history of abuse physical, sexual, emotional are more likely to have an anxiety disorder (Daniels, 2010) People who have unresolved grief, whatever the source, should be screened for anxiety. Those with a personal or family history of anxiety disorders also are at higher risk for developing them. A person with HIV who appears to have symptoms of an anxiety disorder should be given a thorough medical evaluation that includes taking a history of anxiety symptoms to determine onset, frequency, and severity/ anxiety scale (Strongman, 2012). The interviewing clinician should ask about stressful life events, family history, drug and alcohol use (past and present), and any medications the patient is taking (Lee, 2008). Kennedy et al. (2010) explainded that a complete diagnostic evaluation includes testing thyroid, liver, and kidney function, and evaluating for other psychiatric disorders associated with comorbid anxiety (e.g., depression). Certain neuropsychiatric disorders that are common in people with advanced HIV disease (AIDS) must be ruled out before diagnosing anxiety, particularly HIV-associated dementia which can include anxiety. Delirium also commonly features anxiety and agitation. Its especially important to treat the delirium and avoid using anti anxiety medications, which can have serious adverse affects (Jocham and Ullsperger, 2009). A host of general medical conditions are associated with anxiety and must also be ruled out during the diagnostic process. These include fever, dehydration and metabolic complications, CNS opportunistic infections, neurosyphilis, respiratory conditions, endocrinopathies (problems with the endocrine system), cardiovascular disease, and hyperventilation syndrome. A number of HIV-related medications can cause anxiety as a side effect, especially at first. These include acyclovir, antiretrovirals (e.g., efavirenz), corticosteroids, isoniazid, interferons, interleukin-2, and pentamindine. Anxiety is also a side effect of a variety of medications used for other psychiatric complaints (e.g. depression, delirium). In both cases, the anxiety-producing medication should be replaced. If this isnt possible, the anxiety should be treated, preferably with nonpharmacological methods. Cause the medicine has many side effect to their body. There are three different methods used to successfully treat anxiety disorders: pharmacological, nonpharmacological, or a combination of the two. Each patients experience of an anxiety disorder is unique and must be treated as such. Although many anti-anxiety medications are effective, there are also a number of good nonpharmacological treatments to choose from. When someone suffering from anxiety disorder is already taking a variety of medications, or there is concern about potential complications or interactions between medications, it may be preferable to pursue a nonpharmacological approach (Topà §uoÄÅ ¸lu et al., 2009) Medications used to treat anxiety disorders include SSRIs; benzodiazepines, the most commonly used but potentially causing withdrawal symptoms when stopped; venlafaxine; and buspirone. Other anti-anxiety agents that can be effective include antihistamines, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants. Its important to consider drug-drug interactions and potential side effects if the treating physician chooses to treat anxiety with one of these medications. Nonpharmacological treatments of HIV-related anxiety include treated by Nutri Moringa Pudding it does not has side effect. Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a food plant withmultiple medical uses, distributed in many countries of the tropicsand subtropics. It has an impressive range of medical uses with high nutritional value. M. oleifera has antibacterial activity and are reported to be rich in antimicrobial agents (Parrota, 2010). These are reported to contain an active antibiotic principle, pterygospermin, which has powerful antibacterial and fungicidal effects to prevent a pain hormonal such as cortisol and sitokinin. These are to be responsible of anxiety if it is in abnormal condition (Lizzy, 2011). In Nutri Moringa Pudding, a similar compound is found to be responsible for the antibacterial effects and it will result GABA, dopamine in body. The possesses antimicrobial activity attributed to the presence of 4-ÃŽÂ ±-L-rhamnosyloxy benzyl isothiocyanate. The aglycone of deoxyniazimicine isolated from the chloroform fraction of an ethanol was found to be responsible for the antibacterial and antifu ngal activities to prevent of pain hormonal secretion, then produce GABA, dopamine, and encephaline. Nutri Moringa Pudding has been shown to possess antifungal activity that showed antibacterial effect against pathogen bacteria in digestivus system. It was found to inhibitthe growth of microorganisms. Different nutritionts of this pudding contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, GABA, vitamins, ÃŽÂ ² -carotene, amino acids and various phenolics (Toefilo, 2003). Indonesia has used Moringa oleifera modification such as Nutri Moringa Pudding cause it is plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, ÃŽÂ ² sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol such as Walujo Jati hospital in Kraksaan, Probolinggo, East Java Indonesia used it since 2012 to overcome anxiety, malprotein nutrition, diabetes, and cancer. In addition to its compelling high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal values. Picture-2. Nutri Moringa Pudding ImplicationPicture-1.GABA-ergic Selected samples were 30 subjects treated by Nutri Moringa Pudding showed the reduction of HIV/AIDS-infected patients with 10 mg/kg GABA-ergic in Moringa Pudding. The result of the post-test by Paired Sample t- test analysis (SPSS 19) with a value oft= 0.008 or P Tabel-2. Hypotetic Resume Pre-post result Z -2.549a Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .008 Based on positive ranks. Paired samle t- Test 10mg GABA in Nutri Moringa Pudding to overcome anxiety disorder. GABA (gamma- aminobutyric acid) is an amino acid. It is the main inhibitory (calming) neurotransmitter in the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers between neurons (nerve cells). The body make GABA from glutamine a vital amino acid in the brain (Parrota, 2010). Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. GABA is a natural calming and anti-epileptic and anti anxiety agent . It is vital for proper brain functioning. GABA also helps bodies make endorphins chemicals that make them feel happy. Lizzy (2011) said GABA influences our mood because it reduces high levels of the hormones adrenalin, noradrenalin and dopamine, and it affects the neurotransmitter serotonin. Having enough GABA in the brain is linked to being relaxed and happy. Having too little GABA is linked to the feeeling anxious, sleeping problem insomnia, stressed, tense and depressed. when people are nervous or anxious their brains produce more beta brain waves than alpha brain waves. Taking GABA increases the amount of alpha waves. Alpha waves are linked to clear thinking, good focus and being in the zone or the flow. In these mind states, in which people are focused, calm and productive, they have high amounts of alpha brain wave activity, finally it can increase CD4 of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. This scientific paper has showed the effect of Nutri Moringa Pudding on decreasing of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The research showed that the GABA, dopamine, and encephaline in Nutri Moringa Pudding may have produced by multiple mechanisms. It was 20-200mg/kg of the GABA in pudding extract, it appeared that supplementation was able to cause a reduction of anxiety in HIV/AIDS-infected patients Pharmachology intervention has many side effect that it can be danger for human. Nutri Moringa Pudding show the innovative of anxiety disorder and it saved for everyone who consumed it. Promotion Nutri Moringa Pudding must be done by physician, nutritionist, health practice, psychologist, consultant, etc. the value added that Nutri Moringa Consumption showed a good result for PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition) cases, cause it has double protein from eggs. The authors are thankful to Her Royal Highness Princess Tantriana Sari Hasan Aminuddin as a Probolinggo Regence for support her delegation in International; also Dr. Anang Budi Yoelijanto (MD) as a Director of Waluyo Jati State Hospital for research funding and international publication; Nutritionist Team (Instalasi Gizi) Waluyo Jati State Hospital for providing the necessary for the preparation of the research; Dr. Mirrah Samiyah (MD), Namira School, and Dr. Frizka Eliza (MD) for preparing the previous research; Daily Newspaper Kedaulatan Rakyat Yogyakarta, Indonesia for National Publication our research; Dr. Alimatus Sahrah, Dr. Ir. Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Mrs. Reny Yuniasanti, Mr. Awan Santosa at Mercu Buana University of Yogyakarta for supporting of academic material research; Mrs. Rumaniyah, Prof. Dr. Sukarti Moeljopawiro at Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta Indonesia for programming the simulations; Ms. Ayu Deni Pramita for being our research volunteer; Academic Lecturers at Colle ge and Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand for helping with providing the journal; and our wishes to thank Prof. Dr. L. T. Handoko as a Deputy Chairman for Engineering Sciences Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) for helping with writing the article. References Baxter, 2010. The quality of life in Tazmanian on HIV medicine. Massachusetts: MIT, Inc., 9: 132-133. Braet, C., L. Claus, S. Verbeken and L.V. Vlierberghe, 2007. Impulsivity in overweight children. European Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 16(8): 473-483. DOI 10.1007/s00787-007-0623-2. Broman, C., 2009. The longitudinal impact of adolescent drug use on socioeconomic outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Child Adolescent Substance Abuse, 18(2): 131-143. [Accessed ERIC Database]. Chris, D., 2012. HIV/AIDS growing and the death of human. United State of America: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 7: 67-69. Daniel, J., M. Hickman, J. Macleod, N. Wiles, A. Lingford Hughes and M. Farrell, 2009. Is socioeconomic status in early life associated with drug use? A systematic review of the evidence. Drug Alcohol Review, 28(2): 142-153. DOI 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2008.00042.x. Daniels, M., 2010. Gallup: Conservatives outnumber liberals 2:1, church attendance rising. Secular News Daily. Available from http:// www.secularnewsdaily.com/2010/06/28/gallup-conservatives- outnumber-liberals-21-church-attendance-rising/ [Accessed August 15, 2010]. Fred, B., 2012. Psikologi Kedokteran dan Kesehatan. Jakarta: PT. Grasindo, 14: 43-45. Fredrickson, R., P.J. Snyder, J. Cromer, E. Thomas, M. Lewis and P. Maruff, 2008. The use of effect sizes to characterize the nature of cognitive change in psychopharmacological studies: An example with scopolamine. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical Experimental, 23(5): 425-436. DOI 10.1002/ hup.942. Gropen, R., N. Clark Chiarelli, C. Hoisington and S. Ehrlich, 2011. The importance of executive function in earlyscience education. Available from http://ltd.edc.org/sites/ltd.edc.org/files/Gropen%20et%20al%20CDP%20in%20press%20122110.pdf[Accessed September 30, 2011]. Haruddin, A., 2012. Studi pelaksanaan HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada, 1: 91-92. Hoshi, R., K. Mullins, C. Boundy, C. Brignell, P. Piccini and H. Curran, 2007. Neurocognitive function in current and exusers of ecstasy in comparison to both matched polydrug using controls and drugnaÃÆ' ¯ve controls. Psychopharmacology, 194(3): 371-379. DOI 10.1007/ s00213-007-0837-5. Jocham, W. and M. Ullsperger, 2009. Neuropharmacology of performance monitoring. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(1): 48-60. DOI 10.1016/ j.neubiorev.2008.08.011. Kennedy, W.O., R. Veasey, A. Watson, F. Dodd, E. Jones, S. Maggini and C.F. Haskell, 2010. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology, 211(1): 55-68. DOI 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3. Lee, K., 2008. A coverage prevention of HIV/AIDS. Malaysia: Health Ministry, Inc, 1: 22-25. Lizzy, 2011. Chemotherapy of bacterial infections. Part 4: Potential anticholera agents. European J. Exper. Biol, 6(3): 168-169. McDowell and Newell, 1999. WHO on developing og the quality of life: A review of public policy. International Conference on Public Health. New York: Massachusetts Institute Technology, Inc. Nevid, S., 2012. Kecemasan bagaimana mengatasi penyebabnya. Jakarta :Pustaka Populer Obor, 1: 56. Parrota, J.A., 2010. Healing plants of Peninsular India. Wallingford, UK and New York, NY, USA: CABI Publishing. Phillipe and Cella, 2009. Related health on improving of quality of life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 5: 88. Post and White, 2004. Public health on influencing the quality of life. USA: Springer, Inc. 2: 91. Ruggert and Warner, 2001. The quality of life on HIV medicine. United State of America: Missouri Corp, 8: 110. Seligson and Peterson, 2010. AIDS prevention and treatment: Hope, humor, and healing. New York: Hemisphere Pub, 114. Strongman, K., 2012. The psychiatric of emotion fifth edition from everyday life to theory. New Zealand : Departement of Psychology, University of Canterbury, 2: 201-203. Toefilo, S., 2003. Health plants for human well-being. Minnesota: Minnesota University, Inc, 2: 61-62. Topà §uoÄÅ ¸lu, N.V., O. Fistikci, O. Ekinci, G.A. Gimzal and A.B. Cà ¶mert, 2009. Assessment of executive functions in social phobia patients using the wisconsin card sorting test. Tà ¼rk Psikiyatri Dergisi = Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 20(4): 322-331. [Accessed EBSCOhost]. Appendix Picture-3. Nutri Moringa Pudding SachetPicture-4. Nutri Moringa Pudding      Ã‚  

Friday, January 17, 2020

Marxism and Education Essay

The Marxist perspective of education in society can be very questionable because Marxist theorists such as; Louis Althusser, Bowles and Gintis, David Reynolds and Willis all seem to disagree with one another. The first thing I will write about are the strengths. The strengths about the Marxist view are it points out how ideology is transmitted within school via the hidden curriculum, how education legitimises class inequality, it points out the inequalities of both opportunity and outcome on the system and it exposes the myth of meritocracy. From these points I can tell that it tries to believe that teachers are a kind of agent who are trying to wrong the children. Louis Althusser believed that education is an ideological apparatus designed to control children by brainwashing them. Applying this idea allows the hidden curriculum to transmit values which are not intentionally designed to happen. With class inequality it shows that schools are planting a job title on children which will link to their background. For example, a kid from the working class may get a job working at a car manufactures, while a kid from upper class may get a job as a lawyer. But, this really exposes the idea of meritocracy where if you do well at school you will get a good job as a reward. Now, I will write about the weaknesses. The weaknesses are that many working class children do succeed in the education system. It overemphasises class and ignores other structural inequalities: ethnicity and gender, post-modernists would argue that education reproduces diversity not inequality and Marxists can’t seem to agree with each other at all. From these points I can tell that Marxists believe that working class children are a lot less smarter than upper class people but actually this isn’t true because you don’t need to be a higher class to be smarter than anyone else it takes the person to be determined to do it themselves. Also, the teacher could show a lot more favouritism to a specific gender in the class like girls or just as easily be based on the colour of their skin. So, you could be the smartest person in the class but you may be a black girl and I may not pick on you. Post-modernists on the other hand also argue that education reproduces diversity meaning people may not be picked on because of their disability etc. Finally, my last point is that none of the Marxist theorists can’t agree with each other because each theorist believes that their theory is correct and go out trying to criticise everyone else. For example, Bowles and Gintis were criticised by Willis stating that their research wasn’t in depth enough but he could easily be criticised for only researching 12 boys.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Acute Care Nursing Essay - 2095 Words

The aim of this assignment is to critically discuss the nursing assessment individualised care and nursing interventions of the acutely ill patient. The patient discussed developed severe sepsis due to a urinary tract infection and her condition deteriorated during the recovery process in the nurse’s care. Lovick (2009) defines sepsis ‘as a known or suspected infection accompanied by evidence of two or more of the SIRS criteria’. SIRS is outlined as a ‘systemic inflammatory response’ consisting of two or more of the following symptoms ‘temperature 38 degrees Celsius or 90 beats per minute, respiratory rates greater than 20 breaths per minute and white blood count higher than 12,000 cells per microliter or lower than 4000 cells per†¦show more content†¦The nurse found Mrs Smith to be tachypnoeic, her respirations were recorded as 24 breaths per minute it was observed as being fast and it appeared that her accessory muscles were being use d. Mrs Smith’s pallor also appeared flushed and her saturations were documented as 93%. The nurse used the stethoscope to check for wheeze the patient’s lungs were clear and chest rise was symmetrical. Mrs Smith was commenced on 100% oxygen through a non-rebreathe mask, oxygen as an intervention is necessary as Creed Spiers (2010) highlight ‘metabolic demand for oxygen throughout the body is hugely increased by sepsis and is essential to ensure the supply of oxygen is maximized’ .The nurse monitored the patient closely because in her confused state the patient may try to remove the oxygen mask. An evaluation of Mrs Smith circulation was the next step carried out by the nurse, as in the breathing assessment Mrs Smith pallor was noted as being flushed and the patient appeared confused this could be associated with poor cardiac output. The nurse recorded the patient’s blood pressure using a dinamap it was measured at 88/50, it was then rechecked manually to ensure accuracy. The pulse was checked manually for rate and rhythm it was recorded as 98 beats per minute. Capillary refill was checked, was found to be normal. The next step of the framework is disability. Mrs Smith’s conscious level was measuredShow MoreRelatedNursing Practice Of The Acute Care Arena1296 Words   |  6 PagesEvidence Summary With the majority of available evidence pointing towards care in other areas of the acute care arena, there remains sufficient data to support the practice of intentional rounding on a pre-determined schedule in emergency care settings. All of the examples given in the Evidence Critique support rounding as a means of increasing patient satisfaction. In the Lyons, et al., report from the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal it is reported that patient satisfaction is equatedRead MoreEvidence Based Practice Nursing For A Med Surge / Orthopedic Unit Of An Acute Health Care Setting824 Words   |  4 Pages Introduction According to Houser (2012), evidence Based Practice Nursing is the application of evidence based findings by nurses to steer the nurse toward integration of clinical expert opinion and experience with an unbiased comprehensive analysis of the best scientific evidence professional nursing care literature can provide while integrating patient principles and preferences. When planning for sustaining evidenced based practice, it is vital to adopt a methodical critical thinking decisionRead MoreQuestions On Nursing Health Nursing1546 Words   |  7 PagesNURS 409 Community Health Nursing Weekly Clinical Journal Each clinical week a journal needs to be submitted evaluating your ability to meet the clinical performance objectives. Examples must be provided detailing how you have achieved the objectives. 1. Plan, provide, and delegate client-centered and coordinated care that promotes safe and high quality outcomes. - During this week I was not in the clinical setting, however I did participate in a case studies in which I was able to plan provideRead MorePatient Satisfaction And Safety Goals Essay1544 Words   |  7 Pagestimes of health care, patient satisfaction and safety are imperative in order for care to be provided. Hourly/Intentional rounding amplifies the nurse-patient relationship, continuity of care, safety, and service excellence. Intentional rounding or rounding with a purpose can be a success as long as nursing staff have a better understanding and take ownership of the practice. Leadership and nursing staff need to collectively cognize each other’s role pertaining to the delivery of care regarding thisRead MoreHolistic Core Values Of Holistic Nursing1707 Words   |  7 PagesHolistic Core Values Holistic nursing care involves treating the patient mind and body, as well as providing comfort through prayer. The overall ideal goal of providing holistic care is treating the patient as a whole. There are certain standards and guideline designed by the American Holistic Nursing Association in which establish the core values of holistic nursing (Frisch, 2001, p. 1). This paper will discuss the core value number three: holistic communication, therapeutic environment and culturalRead MoreNursing Care Is Grounded By The Belief Of Providing Holistic Care Essay1880 Words   |  8 PagesNursing care is grounded by the belief of providing holistic care to patients, with which is guided by evidence-based practice. Nursing interventions are evidence-based measures that have tried to unify the profession of nursing. The literature serving as testimony to the care that nurses provide has been growing increasingly, however, there are still areas of nursing care where the evidence is deficien t. The lack of research, trickles over to a lack of training and evidence-based practice performedRead MoreEvidence Based Nursing Care For A 57 Year Old Gentleman Who Has Been Recently Diagnosed With Acute Coronary Syndrome2805 Words   |  12 Pages The aim of this essay is to discuss and explore the evidence based nursing care for a 57 year old gentleman who has been recently diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). A case study will be used in order to explore the pathophysiology, aetiology and how to manage the illness as well as published research in order to increase the nurse’s knowledge of the client and provide the best possible care for him. Throughout this essay, the client along with the family will learn how to manageRead MoreTotal Care Nursing Home s ( Tcnh ) Rehabilitation Therapy Program3864 Words   |  16 PagesDescription of Organization: Total Care Nursing Home’s (TCNH) rehabilitation therapy program is designed to produce positive outcomes in the restoration of patients’ lives by providing Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy. TCNH provides treatment specifically tailored to patients’ needs and capabilities. During the admission process TCNH designs a personalized treatment plan by conducting a rehabilitation therapy screening that takes into consideration each patient’s medicalRead MorePain Modulation Induced By Respiration791 Words   |  4 Pages2542-2549. doi: 10.1007/S11999-014-3660-4 Brown, D., Edwards, H., Seaton, L., Buckley, T. (2012). Lewis Medical Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems. Retrieved from http://www.elsevierhealth.com.au/lewiss-medical-surgical-nursing-9780729541770.html Chan, S. (2012). Welcome to the Journal of Nursing Interventions. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 18(1), 1-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-`172X.2012.02005.X Craft, J., Gordan, C., Tiziani, A. P., Heuther, S. E., McanceRead MoreAntepartum/Intrapartum Patient. Student Name: Patricia1607 Words   |  7 PagesHospital Pavilion for Women NOTE: This care plan follows directly from the Assessment Data you have collected in your Antepartum/Intrapartum Physical Assessment. Assessment forms must be submitted along with this care plan and the grading. Submit your Antepartum/Intrapartum Assessment and Care Plan to your clinical faculty. I. Diagnoses Prioritized Nursing Diagnoses: Complete the Care Plan below only on the #1 Nursing Diagnosis that you identify here. 1. Acute pain related to inflammation of the